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Why was there a revolution in Russia in 1905

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Introduction

Why was there a revolution in Russia in 1905? Geography has dominated Russia's history. It was difficult to communicate across the large seas. Much of the North and East were nearly uninhabitable, whereas the Black earth areas were extremely rich. Russian policy faced a question: is Russia a Western or European country, with the same interests as other European Powers, or an Asiatic Power with interest there? This debate, between the "Westernises and "Russophiles", was very complicated because of the variety of nationalities in the Russian Empire. Russia was a leading Slav nation with Moslems, Chinese, Polish and others living there. These various factors presented problems for Russian government. Alexander II was at first a reforming Tsar, ending serfdom, reducing restriction, creating zemstvos, introducing a new legal system, which had juries and trained judges, introducing a less random system of conscription and reducing the length of military service. However, by modern standards he was reactionary beyond all measure, banning trade unions in 1874 and maintaining an enormous army and police force. He was killed in 1881. ...read more.

Middle

Famines, in which hundreds of thousands people died. The economic shoot of the 1890's put pressure on the political and social structure of Russia. The industrial growth rate at that time was higher even than rates in USA. In the last decade of the 19th century, the number of industrial workers in Russia increased by almost a million. This of course led to crises in urban space; new consumer demands. The shock waves of industrialisation spread from the towns to the overload peasantry. Moreover, the process of industrialisation was artificial, being forced by government policy rather than resulting from natural increases in demand. The relationship between the economic changes and the development of the opposition was evident: there was direct protest from those who suffered the most- factory workers in terrible slums, starving peasants in the countryside. And the economic boom brought increased contact with Western ideas about government and society. The revolutionary events of 1905 were preceded by a series of decisions and accidents. There were signs of discontent among both the urban and rural poor. ...read more.

Conclusion

There was no more terrorism. Tsar's uncle, the governor of Moscow was assassinated in February, in March the Tsar promised a "consultative" assembly, religious toleration, language rights for the Polish minority and cancellation of a part of the redemption dues for the peasants. But still some strikes continued and the Tsar was worried about losing what support he had, so in August he pledged of March and promised the Duma will be elected. The only good thing happened was making peace with Japan, the treaty of Portsmouth. Finally he gave in and issued the October manifesto on 30 October. This promised: a parliament or Duma elected by the people, civil rights - e.g. freedom of speech and conscience, uncensored newspapers and the right form political parties. The liberals and middle classes believed they had won democratic government. They stopped their protests and supported the government. By December, with all the troops back in Russia, the tsar felt strong enough to take back control. He used force to close down the St Petersburg Soviet and crush an armed uprising in Moscow. He sent out troops to take revenge on workers and peasants who had rioted and bring them under control. The Revolution was failed Made by: Tene M´┐Żerand Year 12 PF. ...read more.

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