• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why were British troops sent to Northern Ireland in 1969?

Extracts from this document...


Why were British troops sent to Northern Ireland in 1969? On the 14th August 1969, after two days of lawlessness and violence in Derry which became known as the Battle of the Bogside, the Northern Irish government requested the British army to restore peace amongst its rioters. The troops were sent into Northern Ireland as a short term emergency solution to the widespread violence � there were genuine concerns over the possibility of a civil war breaking out. There was a historic feud between Protestants and Catholics. And the roots of disaffection between the communities ran deep. Protestant England had seen Catholic Ireland as a hostile base for Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century. The subsequent Plantation Policy deliberately took land from local Catholics and handed it to new Protestant settlers. These settlements, predominantly in Ulster and Munster, had a profound implication for the future political development of the country, with the descendants of protestant settlers wishing to continue links with the mainland and the descendants of native Irish settlers wishing for independence. ...read more.


Subsequent attempts by nationalists to achieve independence were met by the formation of the Orange Order in the late 18th century. Its' principal aim was to stifle the efforts of Irish nationalists and to uphold the Protestant Ascendancy. However, it's decline through the 19th century was reversed by the growing movement of Home Rule. Protestants had long recognised they would be a minority in a united, independent Ireland. They also understood that Ulster had long been the most prosperous of the Irish provinces. Farming and industry flourished there and Belfast was a thriving port. Their opposition to Home Rule grew, with the slogan 'Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right' becoming popular amongst Unionists, who secured opt outs for six of the nine Ulster counties from Home Rule proposals. Northern Ireland had been created following partition in 1921 ; with a population 60% Protestant and 40% Catholic. The state was given its own parliament that could make its own legislation. ...read more.


O'Neill was ousted and his less reform minded successor, Chichester-Clark was seen as the best possible compromise candidate by the Government in Westminster. Chichester-Clark was concerned about denying his Protestant base their Apprentice Boys march in Derry in 1969 and believed to do so would weaken his position. Although alarmed, London agreed to Chichester-Clark's request. The Orangemen's insistence on marching through Catholic areas was designed to assert their supremacy over the territory. The mobilisation of the paramilitary B-Specials (effectively a sectarian law enforcement tool which had long been a focus of the civil rights reformers concerns) to suppress any Catholic rioters, further infuriated the nationalists. Ferocious fighting ensued and hence the troops were sent to the province. The introduction of British troops to the province was especially ironic because they were there sent to protect Catholics against Unionist aggression. In due course, they were to become symbolic of British rule in the province, becoming a regular target of Republican hostility. 0 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 essays

  1. How Effectively did Irish Catholic and Nationalist Leaders advance their Cause in the years ...

    This wasn't helped by the fact that Asquith wasn't a natural supporter of home-rule, but due to his need for the support of the I.P.P., if he wanted power over Britain as a whole, he had to be prepared to bargain.

  2. Why were troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    Roman Catholics and did not want to be forced to swear loyalty to Henry. So if Henry didn't change religion none of these conflicts would have never happened. In 1534 he announced that he was also king of Ireland, undoubtedly causing additional bad feeling towards the English.

  1. The History of Conflict in Ireland.

    be left undefended, because they couldn't trust any of the forces of law and order. That was when people realized that this has changed from a civil rights campaign, into a campaign for existence. People on both sides--the Protestants who thought their very existence was now at stake, that their

  2. Why were British troops sent to Northern Ireland in August 1969?

    The Northern Ireland Government (Wilson's Government) has to take much of the blame for the outbreak of violence in Northern Ireland. From the time when he came to control in 1964, he completely ignored the situation in Northern Ireland, even though he was warned about the increasing anxiety.

  1. Why were British troops sent to Northern Irelandin 1969?

    From the 12th Century up until the start of the 1900's there had been tensions in Ireland between the Catholics and Protestants and towards the British Government. These tensions grew over the years and soon became major factors in the lead up to the deployment of troops in Northern Ireland.

  2. Why were British Troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    is a peaceful political party. The IRA (Irish Republican Army) is a violent armed force. The Unionists do not believe in, nor want a United Ireland and are from Northern Ireland. Though they disagree on how to go about this. Northern Ireland is home to the UDA;UVF - a violent force, and the UUP;DUP - a group using parliamentary politics.

  1. Why were British troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    William was a protestant, who defeated Irish Catholics at the Battle of the Boyne. The Irish Protestants remember this as the most important defeat over Catholics, every year Protestants march celebrating King Billy's victory at the Battle of the Boyne.

  2. Why were British troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969

    Firstly, the fundamental causes were, the Protestant Unionists dominated northern Ireland, this showed that Ireland was already split by this point. The main factor which caused this separation was religion. There are lots of places in the world where two different religions lie side by side without any political hostility.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work