• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why were British troops sent to Northern Ireland in 1969?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why were British troops sent to Northern Ireland in 1969? On the 14th August 1969, after two days of lawlessness and violence in Derry which became known as the Battle of the Bogside, the Northern Irish government requested the British army to restore peace amongst its rioters. The troops were sent into Northern Ireland as a short term emergency solution to the widespread violence � there were genuine concerns over the possibility of a civil war breaking out. There was a historic feud between Protestants and Catholics. And the roots of disaffection between the communities ran deep. Protestant England had seen Catholic Ireland as a hostile base for Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century. The subsequent Plantation Policy deliberately took land from local Catholics and handed it to new Protestant settlers. These settlements, predominantly in Ulster and Munster, had a profound implication for the future political development of the country, with the descendants of protestant settlers wishing to continue links with the mainland and the descendants of native Irish settlers wishing for independence. ...read more.

Middle

Subsequent attempts by nationalists to achieve independence were met by the formation of the Orange Order in the late 18th century. Its' principal aim was to stifle the efforts of Irish nationalists and to uphold the Protestant Ascendancy. However, it's decline through the 19th century was reversed by the growing movement of Home Rule. Protestants had long recognised they would be a minority in a united, independent Ireland. They also understood that Ulster had long been the most prosperous of the Irish provinces. Farming and industry flourished there and Belfast was a thriving port. Their opposition to Home Rule grew, with the slogan 'Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right' becoming popular amongst Unionists, who secured opt outs for six of the nine Ulster counties from Home Rule proposals. Northern Ireland had been created following partition in 1921 ; with a population 60% Protestant and 40% Catholic. The state was given its own parliament that could make its own legislation. ...read more.

Conclusion

O'Neill was ousted and his less reform minded successor, Chichester-Clark was seen as the best possible compromise candidate by the Government in Westminster. Chichester-Clark was concerned about denying his Protestant base their Apprentice Boys march in Derry in 1969 and believed to do so would weaken his position. Although alarmed, London agreed to Chichester-Clark's request. The Orangemen's insistence on marching through Catholic areas was designed to assert their supremacy over the territory. The mobilisation of the paramilitary B-Specials (effectively a sectarian law enforcement tool which had long been a focus of the civil rights reformers concerns) to suppress any Catholic rioters, further infuriated the nationalists. Ferocious fighting ensued and hence the troops were sent to the province. The introduction of British troops to the province was especially ironic because they were there sent to protect Catholics against Unionist aggression. In due course, they were to become symbolic of British rule in the province, becoming a regular target of Republican hostility. 0 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Northern Ireland 1965-85 essays

  1. Why were british troops sent into northern ireland in 1969?

    The Derry Housing Action Committee invited the Civil rights association to hold a march on the 5th October. By doing this, it would have annoyed the Protestants a lot and would have provoked them into starting to fight. The Protestants also became suspicious because they thought that the Catholics were being crafty, as they only wanted to aggravate the police.

  2. Why were British troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    In the General Election of 1918, following this sway of support, the republican parties won a majority of Irish seats. MP's refused to go to Westminster and they set up an underground Irish Parliament; and a guerrilla war developed. Civil War seemed likely.

  1. Why were British troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    and anti treaty (De Valera). Violence broke out on both sides showing the failure of partition. All these factors lead up to the British army going in 1969, overall the most important factor was the partition of Ireland, this links back to the Plantation, where the British Protestant settlers, settled

  2. Why were British troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969

    Therefore believed that they needed to dominate economic life and political life in Northern Ireland. In order to do this the Protestants needed to be in the majority, they were in the majority in the main political stronghold, Stormont. The Stormont government was made up solely of Protestants and Unionists,

  1. Catholic and Protestant, Nationalist and Unionist, Republican and

    In the period between Ireland's independence in 1921 and the beginning of the Troubles in the 1960s, the Free Irish State and the Catholic Church only helped strengthen the paranoid perceptions throughout the Protestant community. For example, the Irish constitution created in 1937 stated that it rejected partition, would keep

  2. How Effectively did Irish Catholic and Nationalist Leaders advance their Cause in the years ...

    He wasn't so successful in reform and repeal, partly because the national campaign wasn't so strong, partly because the opposition was much stronger than it was for emancipation. As he was rather vague about what he wanted, he was less effective.

  1. Why were British Troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    With religious and historical conflicts the two communities found it very difficult to reach an understanding and an agreement as to what they both wanted. Many Irish people who had immigrated to America supported home rule of Ireland, many Irish and not just Catholics but a few rich Protestant land

  2. Why were troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    as the Apprentice Boys got past the perimeter of the Catholic Bogside clashes occurred. Within hours rioting had escalated, police were stoned and petrol bombed as they made their way in riot gear into the Bogside. After two days and nights of continuous rioting the police were exhausted.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work