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Why were the opponents of the Tzars from 1855 ultimately more successful than those who opposed the Communists regime after 1917?

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Introduction

Why were the opponents of the Tzars from 1855 ultimately more successful than those who opposed the Communists regime after 1917? The Tzarist Empire fell when Tzar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate in 1917 by Tzarist opposition where as the Communists were not forced by opposition but freely chose to end communism under Gorbachev in 1989. This suggests the question is true that ultimately opponents of the Tzar were more successful as they put an end to Tzarist rule where as opponents of the Communists failed to end Communism. The only times there was actually successful opposition was in February and October 1917 with the before mentioned abdication of Tzar Nicholas II and a successful revolution by Lenin and the Communists. However there was also limited success in times with the 1905 revolution, Kronstadt, civil war, early stages of collectivisation and Khrushchev's succession. To answer this question there are two areas to investigate including the threat of the opposition and the regimes in relation to the opposition. Firstly this paragraph will be discussing the nature and threat of opposition under Tzarist rule. Under Alexander II the new openness encouraged by reforms meant opposition grew in the form of writers and students wanting radical demands for a constitution which the Tzar was unable to meet. With the newly allowed freedom by the censors writers began to discuss further reforms and that the Tzar was contributing to the backwardness of Russia. ...read more.

Middle

In terms of opposition to the Tzar the sheer support is large however as the opposition was entirely peaceful it is of a different nature and less of a threat to the Tzar; especially in a country where only violence seems to change political direction. The Tzar in relation to the opposition was very extreme with 200 killed, this with out a doubt showing why opposition wasn't successful because it was so fiercely destroyed. The less threatening Bloody Sunday led to more extreme opposition and the visions of Bloody Sunday caused mass peasant revolts and even the Tzar's uncle Grand Duke Sergei was assassinated this made the Tzar so anxious he published the October Manifesto which granted freedom of speech, meeting and association. This wasn't enough to satisfy the peasants and a Union of Peasants was set up and finally a mutiny on the battleship 'Potemkin' which sparked mutiny in the whole armed forces. By mid October the whole of Russia was paralyzed by strike, this meant that all of the Tzar's opponents were now united. This now meant the Tzar was forced to accept cabinet government and appointed Russia's first Prime Minister Count Witte. This opposition was quite fierce as it was supported by vast numbers of the population and completed halted the Russian economy. This forced Tzar Nicholas II to distribute some of his power in the form of appointing a Prime Minister which he would not have done that lightly. ...read more.

Conclusion

This opposition of no particular group just generally the whole country was extremely successful opposition as it caused the overthrow of 300 years of Romanov rule. This was more successful than the opposition of communism because of the far less threat of fear compared to the degree under communism. In conclusion, I think that yes the opponents of the Tzars from 1855 were ultimately more successful than those who opposed the Communists regime after 1917. This was because firstly there was a greater threat to the Tzarist regime between 1855-1917 with the poor standard of living and famine which was more extreme in Tzarist time. This led to circumstances resulting in opposition such as the 1905 revolution and the forced abdication of the Tzar because of the failing war and lack of reforms. In terms of the Tzarist regime in relation to the opposition they brutally put down opposition but not to the same extend as the Communists who used more fear tactics to scare opposition. Furthermore with the cult of personality especially of Stalin, opposition was less likely to arise as people believed Stalin to be even like a god figure and with clever use of propaganda that the Communists made better use of to keep their support high and opposition low. However I think the key factor why the opponents of the Tzars from 1855 were ultimately more successful than those who opposed the Communists regime after 1917 were the extreme measures that would happen to Communist opposition no matter what scale such as certain death! ?? ?? ?? ?? Nick Williams ...read more.

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