• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

With the Reference to the meetings between 1818-22, explain what you understand by the Congress System and explain it's Achievements.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

With the Reference to the meetings between 1818-22, explain what you understand by the Congress System and explain it's Achievements. The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of 7 conferences held by the power players of the European continent. Originally Metternich's idea, this system for diplomatic relations and decision making processes which lasted until the year 1822. It was disbanded due to rivalry and disagreement among its remaining members. The Congress System has consisted of several alliances, based on the theories proposed by Talleyrand, Metternich and other leaders. In creating peaceful Europe, Talleyrand proposed a theory of "legitimacy". His theory was greatly supported by Metternich, which stated that those who were to lead the nations reorganized by the Congress of Vienna should and must be the legitimate heirs to their respective thrones. This was proposed in order to return stability and equilibrium to the European continent by returning to the governmental institutions of pre-Napoleonic times An alliance consisting of the four major powers (also known as the Quadruple Alliance) whose primary goal was to bring about the defeat of Napoleon. And later to control the reorganization of the European continent, in such a manner that would increase the lifespan of their respective "Autocratic Monarchical Systems". ...read more.

Middle

Metternich, however, frightened of a Franco-Russian alliance, tried to maintain good relations with Russia. Russia, suspicious of Anglo-Austrian cooperation and resentful at Britain's attempt to keep a check on Russian power whilst advancing her own naval supremacy, looked increasingly towards France to help break their control of the alliance. France, desperate to end her period of isolation, saw an opportunity to link the two greatest European military forces that could in turn be directed against Britain. Even at this early stage it proved near impossible to achieve a commonality of interest between the Great Powers, and in later years, it was to be the conflict between national interests and the peace of Europe that was to tear the alliance apart. The conflict of interest between the powers continued at the conferences of Troppau in 1820. In the years 1818-20, nationalist and liberalist revolutions had compounded Metternich's problems in Europe. An uprising in Spain triggered mutiny among the army. Attempts were made to re-instate the liberal constitution of 1812. The rebellion proved successful and news of the success inspired other uprisings in areas such as Piedmont, Naples and Portugal. Metternich, at the head of an empire made up of diverse national groupings saw the revolutions as a threat to the security of the Habsburg monarchy. ...read more.

Conclusion

Russia caused further problems when revolution in Spain developed into civil war. Alexander proposed sending Russian troops to the Iberian Peninsula and the prospect of a Russian army marching through Europe appealed neither to Castlereagh nor Metternich. The Congress of Verona was called in 1922 to discuss these issues. It was here that the Congress system disintegrated. Canning, who had replaced Castlereagh as foreign secretary, told Duke of Wellington that Britain would not condone intervention in Spain in the name of the alliance. This policy left little room for negotiation and marked Britain's withdrawal from the Congress system. French intervention in Spain and Russian intervention in Greece was the end result. Metternich's system of European diplomacy had failed. After the above congresses held in the period 1818-1822, the Congress System finally ended, mostly because of the disagreement between the Allies. With the collapse of this system, the powers then carried out their own policies independently. The Congress System was short-lived and only an informal system. However, it set up a good tradition of using international conferences to settle disputes. Therefore it represented the first attempt to promote international co-operation. Most importantly, the rivalries also made a "balance of power" between the great powers possible. There was relative peace and stability in Europe until the First World War in 1914. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1900-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1900-1939 essays

  1. "The breakdown of the Concert of Europe was mainly caused by disagreements amongst the ...

    Russia, Austria and Prussia. It was stated that the 3 Powers would base their rule and relations on Christian peace and charity. Britain did not sign this alliance and it claimed that the Holy Alliance was useless. Meternich of Austira which was one of the Powers of the alliance said that the alliance was only a Christian mysticism.

  2. "The Vienna Congress created more problems than it solved" - How far is the ...

    By legitimacy, they restored the old regime to the countries, which was familiar to the people, therefore they could adapt to their rule easier. Such as restoration of the Bourbon and Habsbury rule to France and Italian states respectively. Secondly, there was the founding of the Concert of Europe, by

  1. To what extent did nationalism within the Austria-Hungarian Empire contribute to the outbreak of ...

    To meet Germany's dangerous isolation situation - Willaim II made more blunders - he was too eager to assert German authority and strength in the world politics, e.g. Moroccan Crisis He wanted to show that any important decision should not made without Germany and methods used was "the threat of war".

  2. In order for it to succeed, must a strategic alliance be an alliance between ...

    A stronger partner may also use competitive tactics to induce a level of dependency in the weaker firm and is in a position to exploit the weaker firms core competencies. It is therefore often the case that joint ventures are terminated by the strong partner buying out the weaker partner or simply withdrawing.

  1. African National Congress Essay

    A couple years later in 1944, Mandela and his friends formed the ANC Youth League created to make the ANC a more activist organization. "In 1948, a popular political party named the National Party created the apartheid policy which began the production of new laws supporting racial discrimination and the oppression of black South Africans" (5).

  2. The Congress of Vienna

    * Denmark lost Norway to Sweden as punishment for helping Napoleon. The Congress System - After the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, the powers wanted to cooperate with each other to maintain peace and order. - The Congress System was created.

  1. The congress of Aix la Chappelle, Troppau and Laibach were admirable and an enlightened ...

    Meterrnich wanted to secure the Neapolitan revolts by all powers and declared a policy of 'magisterial inaction'. Austria proffered to have acted alone but couldn't afford to break with Russia and so wanted to secure moral backing of the alliance for Austrian military intervention.

  2. Self interest rather than differences of principals caused the break-up of the congress system?

    Even the Treaty of Vienna brought the Great Powers to the brink of war over issue such as Russian domination of Poland and Prussian possession of Saxony, this land grabbing was a sign of things to come. The inclusion of France in a so-called Quintuple Alliance in 1818 at Aix-la-Chapelle further deepened the divisions between the powers.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work