• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

With the Reference to the meetings between 1818-22, explain what you understand by the Congress System and explain it's Achievements.

Extracts from this document...


With the Reference to the meetings between 1818-22, explain what you understand by the Congress System and explain it's Achievements. The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of 7 conferences held by the power players of the European continent. Originally Metternich's idea, this system for diplomatic relations and decision making processes which lasted until the year 1822. It was disbanded due to rivalry and disagreement among its remaining members. The Congress System has consisted of several alliances, based on the theories proposed by Talleyrand, Metternich and other leaders. In creating peaceful Europe, Talleyrand proposed a theory of "legitimacy". His theory was greatly supported by Metternich, which stated that those who were to lead the nations reorganized by the Congress of Vienna should and must be the legitimate heirs to their respective thrones. This was proposed in order to return stability and equilibrium to the European continent by returning to the governmental institutions of pre-Napoleonic times An alliance consisting of the four major powers (also known as the Quadruple Alliance) whose primary goal was to bring about the defeat of Napoleon. And later to control the reorganization of the European continent, in such a manner that would increase the lifespan of their respective "Autocratic Monarchical Systems". ...read more.


Metternich, however, frightened of a Franco-Russian alliance, tried to maintain good relations with Russia. Russia, suspicious of Anglo-Austrian cooperation and resentful at Britain's attempt to keep a check on Russian power whilst advancing her own naval supremacy, looked increasingly towards France to help break their control of the alliance. France, desperate to end her period of isolation, saw an opportunity to link the two greatest European military forces that could in turn be directed against Britain. Even at this early stage it proved near impossible to achieve a commonality of interest between the Great Powers, and in later years, it was to be the conflict between national interests and the peace of Europe that was to tear the alliance apart. The conflict of interest between the powers continued at the conferences of Troppau in 1820. In the years 1818-20, nationalist and liberalist revolutions had compounded Metternich's problems in Europe. An uprising in Spain triggered mutiny among the army. Attempts were made to re-instate the liberal constitution of 1812. The rebellion proved successful and news of the success inspired other uprisings in areas such as Piedmont, Naples and Portugal. Metternich, at the head of an empire made up of diverse national groupings saw the revolutions as a threat to the security of the Habsburg monarchy. ...read more.


Russia caused further problems when revolution in Spain developed into civil war. Alexander proposed sending Russian troops to the Iberian Peninsula and the prospect of a Russian army marching through Europe appealed neither to Castlereagh nor Metternich. The Congress of Verona was called in 1922 to discuss these issues. It was here that the Congress system disintegrated. Canning, who had replaced Castlereagh as foreign secretary, told Duke of Wellington that Britain would not condone intervention in Spain in the name of the alliance. This policy left little room for negotiation and marked Britain's withdrawal from the Congress system. French intervention in Spain and Russian intervention in Greece was the end result. Metternich's system of European diplomacy had failed. After the above congresses held in the period 1818-1822, the Congress System finally ended, mostly because of the disagreement between the Allies. With the collapse of this system, the powers then carried out their own policies independently. The Congress System was short-lived and only an informal system. However, it set up a good tradition of using international conferences to settle disputes. Therefore it represented the first attempt to promote international co-operation. Most importantly, the rivalries also made a "balance of power" between the great powers possible. There was relative peace and stability in Europe until the First World War in 1914. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1900-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1900-1939 essays

  1. "The Vienna Congress created more problems than it solved" - How far is the ...

    By legitimacy, they restored the old regime to the countries, which was familiar to the people, therefore they could adapt to their rule easier. Such as restoration of the Bourbon and Habsbury rule to France and Italian states respectively. Secondly, there was the founding of the Concert of Europe, by

  2. "The breakdown of the Concert of Europe was mainly caused by disagreements amongst the ...

    They could not cooperate with different thoughts. Although Austria later joined the side of favouring intervention, Britain's oposition grew stronger and at last withdrew from the alliance. There are 4 congresses held by the Powers between 1818 and 1823. You may like to discuss how the four congresses related to

  1. The Congress of Vienna

    - The Congress System was created. - The powers met to discuss the problems to avoid wars. - The Congress System was held from 1818-1822. Among these years, four alliances (congresses) were formed. - Finally, the Congress System failed because: a. The powers had different, or even conflicting interests and views.

  2. In order for it to succeed, must a strategic alliance be an alliance between ...

    Similarly, both firms may experience an increase in efficiency, however, the dominant firm may be experiencing a much greater increase. In situations of asymmetric power, despite the apparent success of both firms, in reality, the lion's share of benefits ends up going to the powerful partner.

  1. The congress of Aix la Chappelle, Troppau and Laibach were admirable and an enlightened ...

    The motives and involvement of the Great Powers in the Congress of Laibach was supposedly some sort of mediation by the Great Powers between King Ferdinand of Naples and his subjects. The congress gave Austria a mandate to intervene by force, which resulted in the defeat of the Neapolitan army

  2. To what extent did nationalism within the Austria-Hungarian Empire contribute to the outbreak of ...

    But it may be rash to use this fact to put all the blame on the alliance system for causing a general war. For only working with other fundamental causes like : nationalism, militarism, imperial rivalries etc. did the alliance system "contributed" her part in causing the disastrous World War I.

  1. African National Congress Essay

    Around the age of 22, Mandela finished his boarding school education and soon attended Fort Hare University. From there Mandela earned his BA degree and entered law school. Nelson Mandela started his political career by joining the ANC around 1943.

  2. Self interest rather than differences of principals caused the break-up of the congress system?

    Even the Treaty of Vienna brought the Great Powers to the brink of war over issue such as Russian domination of Poland and Prussian possession of Saxony, this land grabbing was a sign of things to come. The inclusion of France in a so-called Quintuple Alliance in 1818 at Aix-la-Chapelle further deepened the divisions between the powers.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work