• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

With the Reference to the meetings between 1818-22, explain what you understand by the Congress System and explain it's Achievements.

Extracts from this document...


With the Reference to the meetings between 1818-22, explain what you understand by the Congress System and explain it's Achievements. The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of 7 conferences held by the power players of the European continent. Originally Metternich's idea, this system for diplomatic relations and decision making processes which lasted until the year 1822. It was disbanded due to rivalry and disagreement among its remaining members. The Congress System has consisted of several alliances, based on the theories proposed by Talleyrand, Metternich and other leaders. In creating peaceful Europe, Talleyrand proposed a theory of "legitimacy". His theory was greatly supported by Metternich, which stated that those who were to lead the nations reorganized by the Congress of Vienna should and must be the legitimate heirs to their respective thrones. This was proposed in order to return stability and equilibrium to the European continent by returning to the governmental institutions of pre-Napoleonic times An alliance consisting of the four major powers (also known as the Quadruple Alliance) whose primary goal was to bring about the defeat of Napoleon. And later to control the reorganization of the European continent, in such a manner that would increase the lifespan of their respective "Autocratic Monarchical Systems". ...read more.


Metternich, however, frightened of a Franco-Russian alliance, tried to maintain good relations with Russia. Russia, suspicious of Anglo-Austrian cooperation and resentful at Britain's attempt to keep a check on Russian power whilst advancing her own naval supremacy, looked increasingly towards France to help break their control of the alliance. France, desperate to end her period of isolation, saw an opportunity to link the two greatest European military forces that could in turn be directed against Britain. Even at this early stage it proved near impossible to achieve a commonality of interest between the Great Powers, and in later years, it was to be the conflict between national interests and the peace of Europe that was to tear the alliance apart. The conflict of interest between the powers continued at the conferences of Troppau in 1820. In the years 1818-20, nationalist and liberalist revolutions had compounded Metternich's problems in Europe. An uprising in Spain triggered mutiny among the army. Attempts were made to re-instate the liberal constitution of 1812. The rebellion proved successful and news of the success inspired other uprisings in areas such as Piedmont, Naples and Portugal. Metternich, at the head of an empire made up of diverse national groupings saw the revolutions as a threat to the security of the Habsburg monarchy. ...read more.


Russia caused further problems when revolution in Spain developed into civil war. Alexander proposed sending Russian troops to the Iberian Peninsula and the prospect of a Russian army marching through Europe appealed neither to Castlereagh nor Metternich. The Congress of Verona was called in 1922 to discuss these issues. It was here that the Congress system disintegrated. Canning, who had replaced Castlereagh as foreign secretary, told Duke of Wellington that Britain would not condone intervention in Spain in the name of the alliance. This policy left little room for negotiation and marked Britain's withdrawal from the Congress system. French intervention in Spain and Russian intervention in Greece was the end result. Metternich's system of European diplomacy had failed. After the above congresses held in the period 1818-1822, the Congress System finally ended, mostly because of the disagreement between the Allies. With the collapse of this system, the powers then carried out their own policies independently. The Congress System was short-lived and only an informal system. However, it set up a good tradition of using international conferences to settle disputes. Therefore it represented the first attempt to promote international co-operation. Most importantly, the rivalries also made a "balance of power" between the great powers possible. There was relative peace and stability in Europe until the First World War in 1914. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE International relations 1900-1939 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE International relations 1900-1939 essays

  1. "The breakdown of the Concert of Europe was mainly caused by disagreements amongst the ...

    It is really up to your interpretation. Anyway, good try. Disorganization of the congresses was another reason for the breakdown of the Concert of Europe. There were not an permanent headquarter for the congresses. 4 congresses were called at Aix-La-Chapelle, Troppau, Libach and Verona respectively.

  2. In order for it to succeed, must a strategic alliance be an alliance between ...

    An asymmetry of resources results in unilateral dependence, in which the incentive to be flexible becomes weaker (Heide, 1994). The alliance must also be built upon trust and flexibility between the partners and should not depend on contractual obligations to sustain a successful alliance (Aulakh, P, S & Madhok, 2002)

  1. African National Congress Essay

    Nelson Mandela greatly helped for the ANC to succeed and improved South Africa's political system by leading his organization to strongly resist the South African apartheid in the late 1970s to the 1980s. The South African government at the time was ruled by white English folks.


    He was a rough, ill educated and passionate soldier. He first joined the merchant navy which led to his meeting with Mazzini. He quickly became part of Mazzini's followers and after the failed attempt at a mutiny, he escaped to South America and settled in Rio de Janeiro.

  1. To what extent did nationalism within the Austria-Hungarian Empire contribute to the outbreak of ...

    Bismarck was not over-eager to enter into alliance. They implied obligations besides advantages. But, on the other hand, it would have been folly to stand alone. And it was imperative that Germany selected her partners before France found hers, as she was eventually to do after Bismarck had stepped down from the Chancellorship.

  2. The Congress of Vienna

    * Denmark lost Norway to Sweden as punishment for helping Napoleon. The Congress System - After the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, the powers wanted to cooperate with each other to maintain peace and order. - The Congress System was created.

  1. The congress of Aix la Chappelle, Troppau and Laibach were admirable and an enlightened ...

    Meterrnich wanted to secure the Neapolitan revolts by all powers and declared a policy of 'magisterial inaction'. Austria proffered to have acted alone but couldn't afford to break with Russia and so wanted to secure moral backing of the alliance for Austrian military intervention.

  2. "The Vienna Congress created more problems than it solved" - How far is the ...

    An example of buffer state was the kingdom of Netherlands, which were the joining of Holland and Belgium. These two countries have a lot of differences, which later led to the Belgium war of independent. Thirdly, by the principle of legitimacy, old and conservative regime might be restored.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work