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World War I. 1914-18 timeline of major events in the econflict

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Introduction

World War I. 1914-18 Western Front 1914 4th AUG- German Schlieffen plan to attack France through Belgium- Lorraine- Luxembourg / encircle Paris. SEPT- Battle of the Marne. Gernam advances halt Schlieefen Plan. OCT- German attack at Messines and Ypres- bloody with no gains for Fr nor G but develop trench strategies. 1915 JAN AND FEB- French launch offensive but fail t0 gain territory. . April- Italy joins Entente after T of London. But Italian troops weak and loose 1/4 mil to Austria. Late April- Germany attacks Ypres with poison gas. But fail. Summer- Autumn- unsuccessful Entente attacks. 1916- GIGANTIC ATTACKS! Feb- German attack on Verdun, Fr holds on desperately, but saved when G faces double entente attack from Br and Fr in Somme and Russians in Galicia. Germany ultimately defeated, Fr capture all forts. Summer- Somme attacks. I+ mil Br, fr and G die, w/out territorial gains. 1917 US ENTERS AND RUSSIA DEFEAT APRIL- JOINT Br/Fr attack on ermany - heavy French losses and mutinies June- Battle of Messines- br pushes G back at Ypres. July- Battle of Passchendaele (Ypres) 1/2 mil Brits and Canadians die. Late Nov they use mass tank attacks but are still pushed back by G. OFFENSIVE ATTACKS ON WF FAIL AGAIN. 1918 MARCH german forces attack entente. ...read more.

Middle

1915 considered year of WEAK POINT STRATEGY. Ie, battles on Western Front too costly, so commanders attacked enemy at weakest less damageable points.-> battls focus on Balkans and Italt. 1915 April Gas used for first time in G attack in Ypres. 1915 Britain seeks interest in Balkans, leaving French on West in stalemate. Britain attacks Dardenelles but fails to defeat Turks on both attacks. 1916-THE GREAT ATTACKS. G attack in West in Verdun, Feb. Initial French losses huge but in end, G faced with double Entente attack. Br and Dr on Somme and Russ in Galicia. By end more Gs died than Fr, great losses. Trench warfare in Somme, entente superiority- 10 day artillery bombardment. Severe losses- over 1mil men by end of summer without significant territorial gains. Most significant events in this year took place on the Eastern Front. Initial Russian success. 1917- US ENTERS WAR, RUSSIA DEFEATED April- Primarily, US siding Entente was insignificant. March- Russian revolution, Prov. Gov undecided on continuing war, but launch offensive in July under Borisov, in Galicia. After failing to succeed, the Bolshevik revolution came to peace agreements and armistice in Dec. 1918 At start Germans positive as main enemy Russia gone. Entente on Western Front repulsed and Balkans had successful conquerments. ...read more.

Conclusion

Allies unco-operative unitl summer 1918 at end of war. Br and Fr preferred to worjk with distant ally Russia instead of eachother. Artillery bombardment. - The most destructive method of mass killings and damage. - Large artillery barges on land was the military method extensively used to break the trench system. In Battle of the Somme, Br battled with 8 days of artillery bombardment to cut through barbed wire and reach G trenches. - Used for long range bombardment e.g. Germans fired shells at Paris from 120km distance. - Development of modern mortars and the use of massed artillery barrages. Guns were used to fire shells containing toxic chemicals. - Used more as a deterrent to the enemy instead of planning targeted areas. Gas attack - Chemical warfare ranged from disabling chemicals, such as tear gas and the severe mustard gas, to lethal agents like phosgene and chlorine. - Germans first used a mass gas attack method in Jan 1915 on Russia, but the desired effect was dismal as Russia was too cold. - German army's first killing agent was chlorine, produced by major manufacturing companies like I G Farben. - Poison gas was used by the French in 2nd Ypres battle 1915. - Killing capacity of gas was minor- accounted for 4% of deaths. Used more often as the war proceeded, became less effective immediately. But gas on the long term came to be a psychological weapon and acid slowly lead to lung damage and eventually death. ...read more.

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