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World war I was a military conflict that lasted for four years, August 1914 to November 1918.

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Introduction

Claudette S. Calixte History Course-Work World war I was a military conflict that lasted for four years, August 1914 to November 1918. It involved many of the European countries as well as the United States and other nations throughout the world. World War I was one of the most violent and destructive wars in European history. More than 10 million men were killed and more than 20 million wounded. The war began as a clash between two coalitions of European countries. The first coalition, known as the Allied Powers, included the United Kingdoms, France, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, and the Russian Empire. The Central Powers, which opposed them, consisted of the empires of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Japan joined the Allied Powers in 1914. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in 1914, as did Bulgaria in 1915. The same year, Italy entered the war on the Allied side. Although the Untied States initially remained neutral, it joined the Allies in1917. ...read more.

Middle

Nationalistic Beliefs: strong feelings of nationalism fed the fires of hatred in pre-war Europe. It turned Frenchman against German and Russian against Austrian. Nationalistic speeches and writings hastened the war by portraying it as the best test for proof of national superiority. The immediate cause of the war was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Serbian nationalist. On the morning of June 28, 1914, while traveling in a motorcade through Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. The Archduke had ignored warnings of a possible assassination plot and decided to tour the capital on the anniversary of the 1389 battle of Kosovo. In this battle the Turks, ending Serbia's independence as a nation, defeated Serbia. The Archduke was chosen as a target because Serbians were afraid that after his ascension to the throne, he would continue the persecution of Serbs living within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ...read more.

Conclusion

Austrian foreign minister Count Leopold von Berchtold was determined to make use of the assassinations to crush once and for all the Serbian nationalist movement. Berchtold sent an envoy to Berlin, who was assured by Emperor William II on July 5th that Germany would fully support any action which the Dual Monarchy might take against Serbia. On July 6th, German chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg issued the blank check of unconditional German support. On July 23, 1914, Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with a lengthy list of demands, with a 48- hour period in which to comply. These demands included abolishing all Pan-Serb propaganda, expelling from office any persons thought to have nationalist sympathies, taking legal action against certain officials designated by Austria-Hungary, and allowing agents of the Dual Monarchy to control all investigations and proceedings concerning the Sarajevo murders. Minutes before the July 25th deadline, Serbia issued a conciliatory reply to Berchtold's demands, stating that Serbia wished the dispute to be submitted to the International Tribunal at the Hague. This conciliation was rejected. On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun. ...read more.

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