• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11

Write a commentry/analysis on Andrew Jackson's 1835 document on Indian removal.

Extracts from this document...


The end of the War of 1812, fought between the fledgling United States and Great Britain, ultimately led to the final recognition that the United States of America was an independent nation that could no longer be fought over by the perpetually warring European countries. It also signalled greater problems for the native American Indians. They could do little against the powerful white Americans who were "... everywhere like locusts..." (pg.42: III) interloping on tribal lands, "...shouting ecstatic praises to this new land of milk and honey...". (pg.165: IV). During the early nineteenth century, overcrowding in the East and soil depravation caused by over extensive cotton farming in the South, led to the exodus of thousands of men and women, willing to attempt to make their fortunes in the new west. One traveller wrote in 1817 that, "Old America seems to be breaking up and moving westward." (pg.294: I) A new hero also emerged after the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson, a renowned Indian fighter became President of the United States in 1829. President Jackson was not the first to advocate the removal of the Indian nations further west beyond the 'civilised' settlements of white Americans. ...read more.


less industrious in acquiring and exhibited spectacles as disgusting as they are degrading." (pg.26. XII). There is evidence that the Indians were not uncivilised "savages" as depicted by the white Americans. One British visitor described them as "... a better sort of people than commonly represented; they are hospitable, civil and friendly to an immense degree" (pg.24. I). The different tribes, such as the Sioux, Iroquois, Creeks and Choctaw lived in well adjusted societies, each one as different in language and culture as the European nations. Life among many of these tribes was based on the family, farming or hunting and a spiritual reverence for nature and the beauty of the Earth. As in all societies, perhaps some of the more aggressive tribes would not be able to live peaceably alongside or among the relative newcomers. The Cherokees however demonstrated that if necessary, they could adapt to the ways of the dominant white society, as exemplified by the initiation of Indian schools, crop growing and their own newspaper.(pg.83: VI). Jackson's claim in the document that the lands "...were ceded to us," (pg.214: VII) does not sufficiently explain how the lands were obtained. Violence, intimidation and trickery were employed to procure them and if these methods were not sufficient, President Jackson, interceded personally in order to secure removal.(pg.319: VIII) ...read more.


They were often stolen by the agents and carriers and together with the annuities received by the Indians for relinquishing their tribal lands were also used as payment for alcohol, which "...ravaged tribe after tribe until the drunken, reprobate Indian became a fixture of American folklore." (pg.55: XII). President Jackson's policies on Indian Removal as outlined in the document, could not be considered as humanitarian. Jackson typified the era into which he was born and saw the Indian peoples as an obstacle to white American expansionism and the settlement of the west. He saw it as imperative that this obstacle was eliminated. In his last communication to Congress, Jackson "...complimented the states on the removal of "the evil" that had retarded their development." (pg.322; VIII). His policies without doubt contributed to the wealth of the United States of America and transformed the country into a powerful, industrialised nation. But it is the effects that Jacksonian policy-making had on the native American peoples that must surely be subject to closer scrutiny. Without doubt the American Indians suffered almost total annihilation and those that survived were subject to severe depredations. It is little wonder that W.T. Hagan describes such acts "...as approaching the horrors created by the Nazi handling of subject peoples." (pg.87: VI). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE History Projects section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE History Projects essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the way of life of the Lakota (Sioux) and Cheyenne Indians before the ...

    3 star(s)

    They tried to keep the horses out of the hands of the natives they met, but some Indians learned to ride them and frequently stole the horses to take back to their tribe. They were very good at taming and handling the animals and taught one another exactly what to do.

  2. What were the causes of Indian Independencein 1947, and was partition inevitable?

    While the British retained overall power, Indians were given change of education and local issues. While again considered a step in the right direction, it was almost insulting for the Indians as they expected dominion status after their war contributions, and instead all they were given were a couple of small concessions.

  1. 'Law and Order in the American West'

    may have prevented many potential crimes and brought some degree of peace to the lawless towns. However most vigilantes were no better than the outlaws they claimed to be fighting against and often abused their power, as there was no one to stop them.

  2. Was 1750-1900 an era of progress?

    In 1750 transport and the roads were very poor. Most average people could only travel on foot and the rich, by horse and carriage. Both ways were very slow. By 1900 transport was faster and more efficient. This was because railways and canals had been invented and at an affordable price many people could travel with ease.

  1. Beliefs of the Plain Indians

    "They were also told in a dream what description of herbs or roots to gather as their medicine, and this they collect and put into a small bag as a charm. They also kill the animal they dreamed of and keep its skin as a charm.

  2. "Why did war on the Western Front last so long?"

    After this, Allied troops used urine soaked cotton pads as masks because the urine neutralised the poison. In July 1915 soldiers were given gas masks, but these were hard to breath in. Both sides then used phosgene gas because it was more effective than chlorine gas and only little amounts were needed to kill a soldier.

  1. The attitudes of outsiders to Indians.

    He also published his writings, Manners, Customs and Conditions of the North American Indians. His work is all important because it widely influenced the way non-Indians, especially non-Indian Americans, thought about Indians. George Catlin is sympathetic towards Indians.

  2. Prohibition America

    Therefore this source agrees with the statement of Al Capone being public enemy number one, as he supplies alcohol, which keeps the poor people still spending their money on alcohol. Looking at source B, which is an anti-alcohol paper, from 16 January 1920, saying that the new law of prohibiting

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work