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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: ICT
  • Word count: 2885

Digital communications

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Digital Communication Systems Bandwidth and Connection Types used in Networks Normally it is the number of bits (binary digits) per second. The higher the bandwidth, the quicker data will flow along the line. This normally means: * Web pages are loaded more quickly giving the user a better experience; * Large multimedia files can be downloaded faster; * Connection to the internet will be quicker; * Network traffic will not be congested; * Response time on the network will be better. There are a number of different connection types available and each will provide differing bandwidths and features. Communications Protocol Computers which communicate with each other must send and receive data using the same format and method. A communications protocol is an agreed standard for sending or receiving data on the network. If a computer receives data on a network, it must support the communications protocol of the sending computer. The protocol used on the internet is TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) which makes sure that data is not lost as it travels from one computer to another. Protocols are needed to make sure that data is not lost and that computers can send and receive data successfully. If every computer tried to transmit data in a different way no data would ever reach its destination or if it did, the receiving computer would not understand it. Connecting to and using the Internet Single users can connect to the internet. In order to connect up successfully a number of items of hardware and software are required. * Internet Service Provider (ISP); * ISP software; * Browser software; * Telecommunications line (Dial up, ISDN, ASDL); * Modem/Broadband modem/ISDN adapter/Cable modem To connect up: 1. ...read more.

Middle

The internet does not provide information, but provides transport links for information to pass between computers. Typical internet services are: * Electronic mail (email): allows you to send and receive mail * Instant messaging: allows you to communicate online by text * WWW: the World Wide Web. The World Wide Web is an application which runs on the internet and is the largest and most used service on the internet. Pages on the WWW: * are most often written using HTML language * are viewed using a browser * contain hypertext which provides the user with clickable links to other pages on the web * can contain sound, video, animation and graphics as well as simple text * Use HyperText Transfer Protocol to send pages across the internet. For this reason, the WWW could be described as a multimedia service on the internet. The URL of pages on the WWW usually begins with http:// indicating that the page uses the HyperText Transfer Protocol. Using Intranets An intranet is a private network website used with an organisation. The website uses the same protocol as the WWW, i.e. TCP/IP. Intranets are not accessible to the public. Only authorised users can log on and use an intranet. An intranet uses a browser to view pages. Like the internet, intranets are used to share information, to communicate and to facilitate discussion through bulletin boards and messaging facilities. If information is stored and displayed in one location, it means that employees can access the information at any time. Some schools have an intranet which is used to communicate with both staff and students. Through a school intranet teachers can: * Develop departmental websites which contain notes about topics being studied, homework and provide feedback on tests undertaken * Communicate using the ...read more.

Conclusion

A text message goes to a central message centre and it is forwarded as soon as a transmission space is available. Videos and photographs can also be sent through this service. Mobile phones can roam. This means that they can send and receive data and telephone calls whilst in another country. This is useful if the person is away from home or work. The person can be kept up-to-date on all current information. Voice mail enables callers to leave messages if the owner of the phone is unavailable. This means no calls will be missed. Digital and Conventional Cameras Digital Camera Conventional Camera Expensive to buy Cheaper to buy Photos taken can be downloaded to a PC and edited or manipulated using a graphics package Only hardcopy of photographs is produced Not all photos need to be printed. The user can delete unwanted photos from memory and print only the required ones All photos in the film have to be printed. This can be wasteful and expensive if the photos are not of good quality No expensive developing costs, the digital photos can be printed on a home computer printer Then film from the camera has to be taken to a specialist so that photos can be printed. This can be an expensive process No waiting to see photos. They can be viewed on the LCD screen immediately The photographer has to wait until photos are developed before viewing them The quality of the photos can vary according to the output device producing them Photos produced are of a very high quality Photos are generally created in JPEG format and can be emailed or placed into other documents Hardcopy of the photos have to be scanned if they are to be used in digital documents ...read more.

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