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ICT Revision notes

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1. Computer Systems Hardware - This is any physical part of the computer. Examples: a monitor, printer, keyboard, mouse etc. Types of hardware ? Microprocessor ? it contains the CPU (Central Processing kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkUnit), which is the brain of the computer 1. it makes the computer work 2. it is an important component of any electrical device Advantages of the CPU Disadvantages of the CPU Faster frequency makes a better processor. If the user doesn?t have it, the computer won?t go. Software ? This is any internal part of the computer (you can?t see or touch it) Examples: Microsoft word Types of software ? Operating Systems Software ? controls and manages the gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg computer and its components Gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg? Examples: Microsoft gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg Windows, Mac OS X 1. Applications Software ? computer programs that are designed ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffd to carry out specific tasks Ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg ? Examples: Microsoft Word, iTunes The MOTHERBOARD is the main circuit board in the computer. The CPU is a computer chip that sits on the motherboard. It carries out the main processing functions in a computer. Methods of processing 1. Interactive processing ? this responds to inputs from the user 2. Multi-tasking ? when the computer is carrying out several tasks simultaneously 3. Real-time processing ? takes place immediately in response to input from the user e.g. ...read more.


? allows the user to interact directly with the computer system by typing in commands (instructions) onto the screen. 1. The user can?t just type in any kind of instruction; the computer will only react to a definite set of words. 2. E.g. in DOS (Disk Operating System) you could type in: copy c:/item.txtd 3. Example: DOS Advantages of CLI Disadvantage of CLI It can be faster than any other interface It can be confusing Needs les memory (RAM) The commands have to be precisely typed in Doesn?t use as much processing time than a CPU If the user mistypes an instruction, they will have to restart. File and Folder Organization Computers store files in folders. A folder can contain other folders called subfolders. File path ? an address that shows where the file is stored. File Extension ? shows what type of file it is. Extension File Type .doc Word processor .html Website .ppt PowerPoint .xls Spreadsheet .jpg Image File names ? avoid special characters: /?<>*%:??. 1. keep file names short 2. don?t forget a file extension. 1. Using computer systems Identifying ICT problems and solving errors Freeze ? Ctrl, Alt and Del can close down the package that is causing the freeze to occur. Having less memory on a computer with lots of packages open makes a freeze more likely. ...read more.


Two types of network: Local Area Network (LAN) ? covers a small area like one gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggbuilding e.g. a school or a gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg college Wide Area Network (WAN) ? covers a large geographical area ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggge.g. companies with offices gggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggacross the world Computer System To process data Input ? data entered into the system E.g. Memory stick Output ? the action that occurs after the input has been processed. E.g. Printer Processing ? turning the input into a useful form E.g. Microsoft word Operating systems are needed in order to run application software The differences between hardware and software 1. Hardware is a physical device that you can touch. 2. Software is program code that gives the computer instructions about how to operate. Computer programs are software. 3. Hardware needs software in order to function. 4. Hardware and software work together in computers and other devices that use microprocessors. Units of memory - 1 MB is just over 1,000 KB 1. 1 GB is just over 1,000 MB 2. 1 TB is just over 1,000 GB Volatile memory ? memory that is lost when the computer is turned off Non-volatile memory ? memory that isn?t lost when the power is turned off. Input devices ? anything that gives information to a computer like: speaking - microphones Output devices ? anything that gives out information from a computer like: paper - printer * Data on files should be backed up just in case it is lost or stolen. * ...read more.

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