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ICT - revision notes.

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Introduction

CPT 1 Revision * Software may be classified as System Software or Application Software. * Give three examples of system software (not product names). operating system; utility program (or an example of one); library program; compiler/assembler/interpreter/translator; driver; user interface; * Give three examples of application software (not product names). Payroll; Stock Control; Production control; Sales; Invoicing; Word processing; Spreadsheet; Database; Desk top publishing; Browser; Or any appropriate application * Unicode is another coding system for characters. Why is it not possible to code 27 into * the 16 bit word using Unicode? Unicode is 16 bit code; * The above computer system uses the stored program concept. Explain this term. Machine code instructions/program stored in main memory; A RAM/IAS Can be replaced by another program at any time; * Describe how sound is encoded when it is stored in a computer system Sound wave is recorded/sampled at regular intervals; Height/Amplitude/Height/Value of sound wave is represented by a number/binary code/binary pattern; * Give two features of the coding system that will affect the quality of the sound that is * reproduced. Number of bits used to store each value// range of values/numbers/binary codes/binary patterns; Sampling rate// frequency of sampling // time between samples/values; What is meant by: * baud rate the number of signal/voltage changes per second; * bit rate number of bits per second / unit of time; * bandwidth ...read more.

Middle

anything named which is plausible; examples could include: computation / formatting / string handling * Name two other uses for identifiers in a high level language program / constant / function / procedure / module / unit / user defined type / record / label / object / class ; * The programming language being used has both compiler and interpreter software for program development. Give one advantage of the use of each. Interpreter advantage should allow faster/easier program development // faster/easier testing / debugging / finding errors ; correcting mistakes is less time consuming Compiler advantage the executable code/object code/program will run faster ; once the executable file has been produced no further action ; software distribution requires no further software to be available to the user ; prevents tampering of the code by users other than the developer ; * Define the term hardware electrical/electronic/physical components/parts of computer/system * Define the term information Processed data / data with structure / organised data / data which have been sorted / data given a context (and therefore meaningful to the recipient) // Any form of communication which gives understandable/useful knowledge to the person receiving it * What is meant by serial data communication? Bits are sent along a single wire/line // bits are sent one after the other / .bit by bit * Explain what is meant by the stored program concept. ...read more.

Conclusion

Last (item) in, is the first (item) out / first (item) in is the last (item) out ; 1 * Explain why the data bus is bi-directional, but the address bus is one-way only. data bus has to transport data values to and from various devices/internal components ; Only the processor assigns address values to the different devices * Explain the stored program concept. program instructions are transferred from backing store to main memory ; program consists of a sequence of instructions ; program is stored in main memory ; and can be replaced by another program at any time ; instructions are fetched (in sequence) ; decoded ; and then executed * Describe how interpreter software enables a program written in a high level language to be executed. The interpreter software is resident in memory at the same time as the application program is run ; The interpreter recognises/translates/reads/converts each statement A. instruction/line; * A friend gives you a copy of a freeware assembler. Why might you not be able to use this successfully on your computer? The processor/architecture/(hardware) platform is different ; instructions are not the same ; Assembler software is processor/architecture specific ; * Define asynchronous data transmission. Data is transmitted intermittently (rather than as a steady stream) ; Sender and receiver are only synchronized when data is being sent // start bit synchronises the receiver ?? ?? ?? ?? CPT 1 Revision ...read more.

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