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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: ICT
  • Word count: 2690

Report On Satellite Communications

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Introduction

Report On Satellite Communications (Geostationary Orbit, Medium Earth Orbit, Low Earth Orbit Satellites) Contents Page No Summary 3 1.Introduction. 4 2.Types of satellites. 5 2.1 Geostationary Orbit satellite 5-6 2.2 Medium Earth Orbit satellites 6-7 2.3 Low Earth Orbit satellites. 7-8 3.Social implications on satellites. 9 4.Comparisons between satellites. 10 5.References. 10 Summary In order to that the rapid growth of technology Satellite Communication has become the accepted important part and the importance of satellite has steadily increased. So this report comprises the overview of satellite communications ,the types of the satellite and its social implications. Satellite is defined as something that's orbiting or rouding something else these may be natural or man-made.The first idea about satellite was proposed by Arthur C.Clarke in 1945 then the first satellite was launched by Russians in 1957.Noways there are many powerful satellites are launched by different countries of the world. It must be considered that the velocity when launching a satellite to blance the earth's gravity. When the transmissionessage sent to the satellite from the earth is uplinked and transmitted to earth is downlinked. These are powered by rechargeable batteries,fuel cells and nuclear energy. Satellites are divided into three types by considering the space segments such as Geostationary Orbit(GSO) Satellites,Medium Earth Orbits(MEO) Satellites and Low Earth Orbit(LEO) Satellites.GSO satellites are located in the distance of 35,786 km from the earth surface and these are widely used now but its propagation latency (250-280 ms)is undesirable.MEO satellite is 3000-35786 km from the earth and required to be ...read more.

Middle

Because geostationary orbit is restricted to a scarcely bounded region above the earth's surface, it is suitable for the first area of space confronted by traffic jams. Advantages of GSO Satellites . GSO high points are that its satellites are geostationary,which means that the difficulties of inter-satellites communications are avoided. They are available to all the earth stations within their shade 100% of the time. The shade of a satellite includes all earth stations that have a line-of-sight path to it and lie down within the radiation model of the satellite's antennas. There is no require to switch from one satellite to another as they orbit overhead. Accordingly, there are no breaks in transmission as of the switching times The Doppler's effect shift is negligible Disadvantages of GSO Satellites The rate of launching GSO satellite is high because of their high altitude and the natural signal dilapidation calls for large antennas and large transmission power for both the GSO satellite and ground terminals. The problem arises due to the large propagation delay for GSO satellites links it is 250ms-280 ms, ,is caused by the high orbit. Applications, which depend on steady bandwidth, like multimedia will definitely be affected so this is adverse for real time traffic. They require complicated and heavy force devices on board to keep them in a fixed orbit. 2.2Medium Earth Orbit(MEO)Satellites MEO satellite is positioned 3000 km-35,786 km (1,864.11 miles-22,236.39 miles)above the earth surface. These type of satellites orbit higher than low earth orbit(LEO) satellites, but lesser than geostationary(GSO) ...read more.

Conclusion

The widespread use of satellites is in communications,communication satellites are used for this.It means that it is difficult to go through a day without using these type of satellites at least once. When we make a long distance phone call , use a cellular phone, a fax machine, a pager, or listen to the radio,we probably used a communications satellite, either directly or indirectly.Therefore communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. Navigational satellites are available at low cost enabling them to be used in domestic vechiles and in many other everyday applications as well as for very many professional and military uses. We can predict the weather anywhere in the earth any time of the day. The television stations that bear weather information all day long. In addition these satellites are able to detect the volcanic eruptions ,amount of snow in winter,tempeture of the sea,radition and so on. The next application is in Space exploration , Space exploration satellites are used for this. Space exploration satellites are liable for many of astronomy's most vital achievements. Jupiter's rings, for instance, were discovered by a space exploration satellite. Astronomy satellites are used to study mysterious phenomena, to make star maps and to take pictures of the planets in the solar system. 4.Comparisons between GSO,MEO and LEO satellites. Parameters GSO MEO LEO Distance from the earth(km) 35,786 3000-35,786 200-3000 Round trip propagation latency (ms) 250-280 110-130 20-25 Transmitter power Large Medium Small Antenna size Large Medium Small Required numbers to cover the whole world(typically) 3 10 66 Covering polar region No No Yes 5. ...read more.

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