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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: ICT
  • Word count: 3206

Report on technologies relating to businesses and organizations

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Report on technologies relating to businesses and organizations In the 21st Century, businesses and organizations wholly depend on a wide range of technologies. However in this report I will be concentrating on three technologies used by businesses/organizations to access and exchange information, and carry out transactions. The Internet (Information Access and Exchange) Businesses will use the Internet, the World Wide Web, to consolidate its customers and employers. Many companies will have their own website to sell a service or product. By changing one thing, for example the price of a computer, it automatically advertises to the whole world saving time and money. There is no need to send out newsletters to individual customers or employers and notify them about company changes individually. What is the Internet and when was it made? "The internet is a worldwide network of computer networks. It is an interconnection of large and small networks around the globe. The Internet began in 1962 as a computer network for the U.S. military and over time has grown into a global communication tool of many thousands of computer networks that share a common addressing scheme. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP)." http://www.oln.org/student_servces/definitions.php The uses of the Internet The Internet has many uses; however the main use for businesses and organizations is that it provides a worldwide wide connection with customers and employers. It allows companies to access information from other companies around the world via e-mail and websites to make changes internally. ...read more.


In the case of segments, the hub is replaced with a switching hub. Allowing simultaneous conversations to occur as the frame only reaches the recipient. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/switched_Ethernet.html In the future, full duplex data communication will be more frequent allowing data to be sent and received at the same time leaving a collision free environment. The main advantages in a LAN are that: 1.) All the data is stored on a file server which is backed up using tape daily. 2.) Anyone in an organization can access information on the server simultaneously. 3.) Information can be accessed from the other side of a large building. The main disadvantages in a LAN are that: 1.) They can be very expensive 2.) If the file server is damaged then the whole company may suffer 3.) The speed may be dependent on the topology of the network (Explained below) Types of Topology The topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. * Linear Bus is when file server, workstations and peripherals are connected to the main run linear cable (show below). * Star network is when each node is connected to a central hub or concentrator. Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing on to its destination. The hub controls all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow. Common with twisted pair cable, coaxial cable or fibre optic cable can also be used. * Star-wired ring is basically the same as the star network. However the nodes are also connected, in a ring shape, allowing them to communicate. * Tree network is combination of linear and star topologies. Development of networks Recent development has made the transfer of large data quicker. Over the years many things have been changed. 1.) Previous coaxial copper medium has been replaced by fibre optics. ...read more.


The host processor is analogous to an Internet service provider (ISP) in that it is the gateway through which all the various ATM networks become available to the cardholder. EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer) and Transaction Security Modules Electronic Funds Transfer is a system which electronically moves data representing money between accounts or organizations without having to actually move the money (i.e., paper, gold, etc.). Organizations can use EFT when doing business, for many reasons i.e. buy new computer components. The Transfer of money for businesses is usually a large amount thus it has to be secure. Security modules use encryption to make them secure. Such as the Incognito TSM 110 which is designed specifically for financial transaction applications and EMV terminal support. Ideally suited for use in EFTPOS (Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale) terminals Overtime, transactions i.e. money transfers have become more secure with the use of cryptographic technology. The use of security modules such as the Incognito TSM 110 has made it easier for businesses to transfer money without worrying. However, the money being transferred may have an illegal purpose which at the moment cannot be stopped. 1. The use of smart cards enables higher levels of encryption and security. 2. The use of security modules for EPOS and EFTPOS also enables higher levels of security 3. ATM machines around the world allow access to money at any time, not forgetting that the credit card allows the purchasing of services and goods all around the world. Overall, business transactions are becoming secure, however, as every technology can be hacked into this is no different. Businesses use systems like EPOS because they are faster and cheaper in the long term. Cash systems are becoming more secure yet more available around the world. Use of ICT in REPORT I also used Google to search for transactional technology (shown below) This was also carried out for network technologies and the internet. However, (above) "+" sign was used to narrow the search and get better results. Sources: http://www.prism.co.za/ http://www.howstuffworks.com/ http://www.ewart.org.uk/it/network/topology/topology.htm/ http://www.fsu.edu/gradstudies/orientation/ethernet%20update.pdf http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/intranet.html Abdul Samad Farhat 1 Applied GCSE UNIT 3 ...read more.

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