• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe The Work of The Magistrates Court, The Problems and The Proposals for Reform

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Law (MS) 31/01/03 Describe The Work of The Magistrates Court, The Problems and The Proposals for Reform Plan English Legal System ? 2 primary courts ? ? Crown Court Magistrates ? ? Professional judge and a jury 3 lay magistrates and the clerk of the court Functions: * Granting of licences for premises * Issues warrants for premises/detention/bail * A filter in terms of offences-initially all cases (clearing house) * Summary offences - minor offences - trial court * Each way - minor or serious depending on the consequences (e.g. driving without due care and attention could lead to death by dangerous driving) * Indictable offences - serious offences (magistrates look for sufficient evidence and then refer the case to the crown court) Composition: * 3 magistrates (lay people ? none professionals) ? local people who know about local circumstances. * Recruitment ? 27-60 * Retirement ? 70 (or can be retired earlier for misconduct) * Who cannot be a magistrate? * How much training before becoming a magistrate? How much a year? * Clerk of the court who is usually referred to (this is a legal advisor with at least 5yrs standing (usually a solicitor or barrister)) * In complex cases stipendiary magistrates are also present. They are district judges who have a lot more training than lay magistrates. Problems: * Inconsistent - punishments vary from one part of the country to another * Prosecution bias - the police are favoured more than the defendant instead of initially being equal * The magistrates are lay people who have no legal background and only limited legal knowledge ? ...read more.

Middle

They attend court and report on the cases. The usher is there to ensure that the proceedings run smoothly and that order is maintained. The clerk of the court is usually either a barrister, or a solicitor who has at least five years standing. They act as a legal advisor, but the final judgements are up to the magistrates. In complex cases a stipendiary magistrate may also be present. They are professional district judges who have a lot more legal knowledge and training than lay magistrates. Stipendiary magistrates can earn up to �74,000 a year. The magistrates are lay people (none professionals) who have legal training. They are also known as 'Justices of the Peace' (JP's). To become a magistrate you must be of good character, have knowledge on local issues and local circumstances, be able to work as part of a team and have the ability to weigh evidence and reach reasoned decisions. Although magistrates receive a small allowance for travelling expenses and so on, they do not receive a salary. However, not everyone can become a magistrate; the police, traffic wardens and anyone else who is a serving member of Her Majesty's Forces are unable to become magistrates. Other people who cannot become magistrates, are people who are bankrupt, the close relatives of a person who is already a magistrate serving on the same bench, anyone who has a disability which stops them from carrying out all the duties of a magistrate, or anyone who has a serious criminal record. ...read more.

Conclusion

The inconsistency of punishments also needs to be looked at, because it is wrong for two people who are charged with the same crime to be punished differently just because they live in different parts of the country. Another suggestion for improvement is to put a judge on the bench with two lay magistrates; this would result in more serious cases being heard and subsequently harsher punishments being able to be granted. Finally, in cases where the defendant is unhappy with the verdict or their punishment they can appeal. If the defendant pled guilty at the trial they can only appeal against sentence, whereas if the defendant pled not guilty then they can appeal against both their sentence and their conviction. To appeal, a 'notice of appeal' must be given within twenty-one days of the conclusion of the case to the court and to the prosecutor. (Legal Aid can be applied for) The appeals are heard in the Crown Court, where a full rehearing of the case goes ahead, but before a judge and two magistrates, instead of a judge and jury. If the appeal is successful then the conviction could be quashed or the sentence reduced. However, if the appeal fails, the defendant could incur the court fees. Also if the court feels that the original sentence was too light it could be increased. The decision of the Crown Court is final (and there is only one rare situation in which you can pursue your case any further). These are risks which the defendant will have to think about before going ahead with an appeal Si�n Lees ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Law section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Law essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Police powers

    4 star(s)

    by the accused person, it is represented to the court that the confession was or may have been obtained * either by oppression of the person who made it or * in consequence of anything said or done which was likely, in the circumstances, existing at the time, to render unreliable any confession which might be made in consequence thereof.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Part-time judges in the Magistrates Court.

    3 star(s)

    However, the maximum they can give is up to 6 months in jail (or 12 months if two or more counts) and/or up to a �5,000 fine, and there is always a right of appeal against sentence or conviction if they get it wrong.

  1. Distinguishing between a Lay Magistrate and a Stipendiary Magistrate.

    People who are qualified in law, ex-police officers or bankrupts are ineligible to become lay magistrates. This rule also applies to those who have been convicted of serious offences. In addition, relatives of those who fall into the categories stated previously would also be ineligible to become lay magistrates.

  2. Criminal Law (Offences against the person) - revision notes

    Cheshire was said to be the operative and substantial cause of death and the treatment was only poor. R v Mellor (1996) - Mellor assaults and old woman and breaks some ribs and cheek bones. She dies 2 days later from pneumonia.

  1. Describe the main differences between solicitors and barristers with regard to training and work ...

    The main advantage of fusing the two professions is it reduces the costs that a client has to pay to have their case represented. Currently a client has to pay two fees, one for their solicitor the other for their barrister as it is usually necessary to hire both, the

  2. essay discussing the advantages and disadvanteges of lay magistrates

    Throughout history law has been the domain of the rich and high class. It is no different nowadays with the amazingly expensive training required to become a lawyer, barrister or anything else for that matter that means that you have to come from a wealthy background to get into the job.

  1. The Constitutionalisation of the Treaties by the European Court of Justice.

    This simply does not follow. The Treaty itself does in fact already affect the peoples of Europe in many ways. This vague reference in the Preamble cannot be held to be specifically relevant to the effect of law when the provision in question is specifically directed at Member States. 2.

  2. Describe the system of trial by jury within the English legal system.

    for a short time, and want to spend that time with their family, rather than do jury service. MP's would also be excused because their job is seen to be very demanding. People who have served in the last 2 years would have the right to be excused because they

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work