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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 3182

AS Psychology Coursework- Research on Deeper Processing

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AS Psychology Coursework

Research on Deeper Processing


Contents

Section

Page

1. Introduction

3-4

- Background Research
- Rationale
- Aims

- Hypotheses

3
4
4
4

2. Methodology

5-6

- Method and Design

- Variables
- Participants
- Apparatus
- Procedure
- Controls

5

5

5

5

5

6

3. Results

7-8

- Summary Table
- Graphical Results
- Relationship of Results to Hypothesis

7

7

8

4. Discussion

9-10

- Validity
- Improving Validity
- Reliability
- Improving Reliability
- Implications
- Generalization
- Application

9
9
9
9
10

10

10

5. References and Appendices

11-16

References
Appendix 1. Standardized Instructions

Appendix 2. Word List w/ Examples

Appendix 3. Word List w/o Examples

Appendix 4. Blank Question Sheet

Appendix 5. Question Sheet Filled in

Appendix 6. Complete Results Table

11

12

13

14

15

16

17


  1. Introduction

Background Researches

- In Craik and Lockhart’s levels of processing approach (1972), they suggested that how we process information greatly influences whether we will remember something. Significant events are often remembered much better than mundane events because we have put extra consideration onto them – i.e. deeper processing. This produces a more elaborate and longer lasting memory and significantly improves the ability to recall. They have suggested that there are 3 different levels of processing, in increasing levels of deepness: structural (the appearance of something), phonetic (the sound of something), and semantic (the meaning of something). As the processing level gets deeper the ability to recall gets better.

- Craik and Tulving did a research in 1975 to prove their theory. They performed an experiment on the 3 different depth of processing and how they affect recall on words. The participants were presented with lists of words for a very short period of time. After the presentation, the participants were asked “yes” or “no” questions on specific aspects of the word which would stimulate either one of the 3 levels of processing. (such as “what does this word rhyme with?” which stimulates phonetic processing.)

Participants would answer the questions.

...read more.

Middle

appendix 1). The results of individual participants were kept private as they were not asked to write their names. Lastly, the participants were debriefed after the experiment so they knew exactly what the experiment was for.
3. Results

Summary Table

The number of words recalled correctly was recorded.

Words Recalled Correctly

Word Definitions with examples

Word Definitions without examples

Mean

4.2

3

Mode

5

2

Median

4

3

The table clearly shows that participants recall better when they read word definitions with examples than when they only read the word definitions without the examples. Participants who read the word definitions with examples recalled an average of 4.2 words correctly, most of them recalled 5 words correctly and they recalled a median of 4 words, whereas those who read definitions without the examples only recalled an average of 3 words, majority of them only recalled 2 words correctly, and they achieved a median of 3 words.

Graphical Results

image00.png

The bar chart shows more clearly that more words are recalled correctly when word definitions include examples. The average words recalled when examples were given is slightly above 4 while the average words recalled when there weren’t any examples is only 3.

Relationship of results to hypothesis

The results showed that on average the participants who read the word lists with examples recalled 1.2 more words correctly than those who read the lists without examples. This supported the experimental hypothesis (H1) and hence rejected the  null hypothesis (H0) as more words are correctly recalled when the list of word definitions include examples than when the list of word definitions don’t, because the semantic processing is deeper and hence the words adhere better in the participants’ minds leading to better recall of the words.


4. Discussion

Validity

Firstly, this research has high ecological validity

...read more.

Conclusion

2. Amorphous – lacking form or shape (i.e. liquid and gases are amorphous)

3. Immaculate – totally clean (i.e. My answer sheet was immaculate due to the difficult exam: I couldn’t answer any questions.)

4. Autonomous – independent (i.e. Although Hong Kong is called an Autonomous Region, the Chinese government still has a lot of control over it.)

5. Strident – Loud (i.e. Some composers develop varying musical textures by combing melodious flutes with more strident cymbals and electronic effects.)

6. Exonerate – to free from blame (i.e. After the police officers who beat up Rodney King were exonerated, there were riots in Los Angeles.)

7. Recalcitrant – Disobedient (i.e. The “Three Strikes” law is an attempt to keep recalcitrant criminals behind bars permanently.)

8. Pragmatic – Practical (i.e. My idealistic side tells me I should try to solve all of the world’s problems, but my pragmatic side knows I can’t.)

9. Erudite – Highly educated (i.e. The audience was impressed by the erudite display of knowledge by the Jeopardy grand champion.)

10. Petulant – Short-tempered. (i.e. After one hour of complaining, the petulant customer was asked to leave the pet store.)


Appendix 3. Word List w/o Examples

1. Copious – plentiful

2. Amorphous – lacking form or shape

3. Immaculate – totally clean

4. Autonomous – independent

5. Strident – Loud

6. Exonerate – to free from blame

7. Recalcitrant – Disobedient

8. Pragmatic – Practical

9. Erudite – Highly educated

10. Petulant – Short-tempered.


Appendix 4. Blank Question Sheet

Questions

1. Lacking form or shape - _____________________

2. Highly educated - ____________________

3. Independent - ___________________

4. Loud - _______________________

5. Plentiful - ______________________

6. To free from blame - ___________________

7. Totally clean - ____________________

8. Short-tempered - _____________________

9. Practical - ____________________

10. Disobedient- ______________________


Questions

1. Lacking form or shape - _____________________

2. Highly educated - ____________________

3. Independent - ___________________

4. Loud - _______________________

5. Plentiful - ______________________

6. To free from blame - ___________________

7. Totally clean - ____________________

8. Short-tempered - _____________________

9. Practical - ____________________

10. Disobedient- ______________________


Appendix 6. Complete Results Table

Word List With Examples

Word List Without Examples

Participant Number

Words recalled

Participant Number

Words Recalled

1

4

1

3

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

4

5

4

4

5

7

5

6

6

2

6

3

7

4

7

2

8

5

8

1

9

5

9

0

10

6

10

3

11

8

11

2

12

3

12

4

13

2

13

1

14

2

14

5

15

5

15

7

Mean

4.2

Mean

3

Mode

5

Mode

2

Median

4

Median

3

...read more.

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