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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 2983

Biological Individual Investigation What Effects Have Management Had On Grasses In Rushey Plain, Epping Forest? Abstract

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Biological Individual Investigation

What Effects Have Management Had On Grasses In

Rushey Plain, Epping Forest?

Abstract

Rushey Plain, Epping Forest, is an area that is currently undergoing succession due to the loss of an arresting factor in the 1950s. With a Mann-Whitney U-Test Value of 56, I managed to prove that there is a significant difference in grass coverage between a wooded area, where natural succession had been allowed to occur, and an area that had been artificially cleared in Epping Forest.

Aim

To study the effects that management have on grasses in two areas of Rushey Plain, Epping Forest.

Background Knowledge

Epping Forest is found between London, and where the M11 and M25 cross. The layout of the forest can be seen on the map (figure 1)

From analysis of fossilised pollen in the area, it is known that Epping Forest has existed for at least 4,000 years. The Normans established it as a Royal Hunting Forest, and wood pastures were maintained in the first known form of forest management. In 1878, the Corporation of London became conservators of the forest, under the Epping Forest Act. The Corporation now ‘have a responsibility to ensure its protection for the benefit of local people. This is achieved through the enforcement of a number of byelaws laid down by Acts of Parliament. These bye-laws are designed to prevent any action or actions by people that would harm the fabric of the Forest, destroy wildlife or natural habitats, damage the landscape or otherwise spoil the public’s enjoyment of the open space.

...read more.

Middle

When I picked my grassland study area, I had to choose an area, which was 10m x 10m in size, and did not cross any paths. The site that met these two requirements was partially in the shadow of an oak tree. At different times in the day, these shadowed areas would have been in direct sunlight (figure 9). Similarly, some of the areas, which were in direct sunlight at the time of measurement, were shaded at other times of the day. This meant that some of my light measurements could have been atypical of the average light intensities. This could account for the weak correlation on the graph to show correlation between height of grass and light intensity.

The method used to measure ground cover uses estimation, which introduces human error. It is difficult to assess the cover when the plants have greatly different heights, such as in the cleared area of my study. Small species, are often covered by larger plants, and may not be recorded.

The measurement in height of the

...read more.

Conclusion

2 is the smallest value, and in order to reject H0, it must be greater than the value shown in Figure 8. The value for 10 x 10 is 23. 56 is higher than 23, and therefore, H0 can be rejected.

This shows that there is a significant difference between the two areas of Rushey Plain, which is what I set out to prove at the beginning of this investigation.


Evaluationimage03.png

The scatter graph (figure 6) shows that there is a positive correlation between light intensity and grass height, although there are many points, which are a long way from the line-of-best-fit.

When I picked my grassland study area, I had to choose an area, which was 10m x 10m in size, and did not cross any paths. The site that met these two requirements was partially in the shadow of an oak tree. At different times in the day, these shadowed areas would have been in direct sunlight (figure 9). Similarly, some of the areas, which were in direct sunlight at the time of measurement, were shaded at other times of the day. This meant that some of my light measurements could have been atypical of the average light intensities. This could account for the weak correlation on the graph to show correlation between height of grass and light intensity.

The method used to measure ground cover uses estimation, which introduces human error. It is difficult to assess the cover when the plants have greatly different heights, such as in the cleared area of my study. Small species, are often covered by larger plants, and may not be recorded.

The measurement in height of the grass was only accurate to one cm, and human error was created, as I had to choose by sight which grass plant I thought was tallest.

...read more.

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