• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Document length: 1371 words

Critically consider the role of genetic factors in the development of measured intelligence.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Critically consider the role of genetic factors in the development of measured intelligence. Genetic factors are a major influence on the development of measured intelligence. However, extensive research suggests that genetic factors alone cannot account for a person's intelligence. Research evidence suggests that a person's intelligence isn't 'fixed' from birth, but environmental and social factors can cause an increase in intelligence. The importance of genetic factors in intelligence is exemplified in family resemblance studies. This involves examining the correlation of intelligence test scores among people who vary in genetic similarity. If genetic factors influence IQ then the closer the genetic relationship between two people, then the greater the correspondence rate (concordance) between their IQ's should be. In Bouchard and Mcgue's worldwide review of 111 studies, they found the closer the genetic relationship between individuals the higher the correspondence of IQ scores. For example the correlation for cousins (who share 12.5 % of their genes) is weaker than that for parents and offspring who share 50 % of their genes. The strongest Correlation is for Monozygotic twins (identical twins) who share the same genes.Therefore,these findings suggest that genetic factors play a key role in measured intelligence. However, the main criticism of these findings is that as the genetic similarity between people increases so does the similarity of their environment: for example parents and offspring usually live in the same household, cousins tend not to. ...read more.

Middle

These more through and reliable findings prove a strong correlation between IQ and genetics. Furthermore research into adoption studies seems to prove genetics play a fundamental role in influencing intelligence. Adoption studies are useful in proving that genetic factors influence intelligence because children share half their genes with their biological parents but none of their environment, and their environment with adoptive parents but none of their genes. Musinger found that the correlation of IQ score for adopted children and biological parents was 0.48 compared to 0.19 for adopted children and adoptive parents. Therefore, in this study biological factors seem more important than environmental factors in determining intelligence. Moreover, Plomin found that IQ's of adopted children and their unrelated siblings showed a weak correlation. Thus proving that even though the children shared the same environment, their intelligence differed because of their genetic differences. However a problem of adoption studies is assessing the similarity between biological parents and adoptive parent's environments. Research by Scarr and Weinberg proves that when the environments of the biological and adoptive parents are very different a substantial change in IQ score can be observed. Scarr and Weinberg carried out a study of 101 white families that where above average in intelligence, income, and social class who adopted black children. ...read more.

Conclusion

Bee found that children with higher IQ's tended to have parents that provided, complex physical environments including toys and play materials, talk to their child often, are emotionally responsive and involved with the child and encourage the child to exceed academically. In conclusion measured intelligence can be recognised as an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Genes do not fix intelligence; instead they provide the basis of intellect. Environmental factors build on genetic intelligence, and as extensive research proves a stimulating environment can lead to an increase of IQ scores. The correlation between IQ scores and genetic similarity exemplifies that intelligence is mainly biologically based. However Intelligence is highly changeable and can be increased due to environmental factors. If both environmental and genetic factors influence intelligence then this causes the problem of how much each contributes. Heritability refers to how much a characteristic is determined by genetic factors within a particular population at a particular time. The heriabilty estimate of genetic factors in IQ is 80% however more recently that has been decreased to 50/60%(Bouchard and Segal). This makes is difficult to distinguish whether it is environmental factors of genetic factors that determine intelligence because they are closely linked. Moreover Bee's research proves that children from higher educated, middle class families have children with higher IQ's, however this could be because of environmental factors or genetic factors or both. Sophie Parslow 28/04/07 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE IQ Correlation section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE IQ Correlation essays

  1. The 3 statements I am going to investigate are: -Does the gender of the ...

    119 5 5 5 5 Powers Alan 105 4 4 4 4 Lee Brett 92 3 3 3 3 Berk Stephen 92 4 3 4 4 Morrison Simon 96 4 3 4 4 Armstrong Simon 116 5 4 5 5 McGuire Fredrick 100 4 4 4 4 Robinson Luke 100

  2. Discuss the role of genetics & cultural differences in the development of intelligence.

    'Culture' refers to the rules, morals and methods of interaction that bind a group of people and which are determined through the process of socialization. Socialization is achieved largely through parents, school and peers, as well as members of one's culture in general.

  1. Perform a statistical enquiry that will either prove or disapprove my hypothesis.

    I have decided to just put all of the values in order, smallest first. From the data thus it wont be hard to find the median. 1,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5 Since there are 100 values in my sample, there is no definite median in my data.

  2. Comparison of SATs results to obtain statistical data on students.

    Frequency= 21 Median= 11th value Median= level 5 The median level for science in 2000 is: Frequency= 41 Median= 21st value Median= level 5 The modal level for females in science in 2000 is: (the level which was achieved by most people).

  1. An Investigation into Gender-Based Stereotyping Using IQ Estimates

    One, that males are more aggressive than females. Although this finding had been challenged, and the definition of aggression itself was questioned, it is fairly common feature that boys will play fight, and as adults are more likely to fight.

  2. Maths Coursework: investigation into the correlation between IQ and KS2 results

    Steven M 5 5 115 5 6 7 Jebron Aysham M 4 4 100 4 7 7 Lovejoy Shaun M 4 5 107 4.5 8 7 Molloy Andy M 4 4 100 4 9 7 Walker Steven M 4 4 100 4 10 7 Sammy Singh M 5 5 104

  1. HYPOTHESIS Blonde girls are more intelligent than non blonde girls. Blonde girls that ...

    * Grouped Frequency Tables - So I can do Cumulative Frequency Diagrams etc. * Cumulative frequency - Measuring the spread of the data, can compare this against Box and Whisker diagrams. I will then continue my investigation with my second hypothesis: Blonde girls that have a higher IQ watch comparatively less television.

  2. This experiment will show that there is a significant positive correlation between males and ...

    Rosenberg's scale was originally developed to measure adolescent's global feelings of self-worth or self-acceptance, and is generally considered the standard against which other measures other measures of self-esteem are compared. It includes 10 items that are scored using a four-point response ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work