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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 1388

Determination of ethanol in beer by gas liquid chromatography.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL IN BEER BY GAS LIQUID

CHROMATOGRAPHY

Summary

The reason why Ethanol can be determined by GLC is because it is volatile and thermally stable at the operating temperature of GLC. Gas – Liquid chromatography (GLC) has found widespread application in many areas of chemical analysis and a wide range of compounds can be examined. (1).

Objectives

1- To determine accurately the ethanol content of a can of beer by gas liquid chromatography using external standardisation with an internal standard.

2- To construct a calibration curve of absolute and relatives peaks areas and use this data to determine concentration of ethanol in the unknown sample.

Key results

As the experimental results shows the graph showing the peak area of ethanol gives the ethanol concentration of beer solution as 4.17% and the graph showing the ratio peak area gives the ethanol concentration of beer solution as 3.47%.

Main conclusion

When the theoretical (labelled) value of beer concentration which is 4% v/v, compared to both experiment results, it found to lower than 4.12% and higher than 3.47%.

Introduction

Chromatograph is a separation technique where component molecules in a sample mixture are transported by a mobile phase over a stationary phase. The mobile phase may be a gas or a liquid (solvent system)

...read more.

Middle

 (400μ) of Propane 1o-1 were pipette into 10 cm3 volumetric flask respectively and made to the mark with distilled water.

The gas of the beer was reduced to its lowest value just by pouring between two beakers continuously for about 5 min. then 400μ of propane 1-o1 was added using pipette into a 10 cm3 volumetric flask and made to the mark with degassed beer.

Finally all volumetric flasks which are labelled from 0 to 5 and the one labelled beer were taken to the GLC machine. Then 2 μ from each volumetric flask at a time was injected in the GLC machine and the detector response was recorded using the integrator.

Experimental results and calculation

Table-1

Ratio peak area

(A/B)

Peak area of propane 1-o1 (B)

Peak area of ethanol (A)

Conc. Of ethanol

% v/v

0

4441208

0

0

0.1517

5516078

836795

1

0.1517

5543383

1872763

2

0.3378

5662998

2822019

3

0.4983

5495500

3603875

4

0.6557

5878865

4810880

5

0.8183

6869678

3917793

Beer

Experimental calculation

The concentration of beer at a given peak area of ethanol is calculated as follow:

Where peak area of ethanol is (3917793 % v/v).

...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion

 As the experimental results shows that the graph showing the peak area of ethanol gives the ethanol concentration of beer solution as 4.17% and the graph showing the ratio peak area gives the ethanol concentration of beer solution as 3.47%.Therefore based on the results obtained, it can be said that the results obtained from ethanol peak area is more accurate than the ratio peak areas since it is more close to the expected value, which is 4% v/v.

.

 The experiment results can be improved in different ways, however the simplest one is to repeat the experiment as many as you can and take average reading to draw the graphs

According to the theory the results which is obtain from the graph showing the ratio peak area should gives the more accurate ethanol concentration of beer, however as the experimental results shows it does not. The reason could be due to the experimental error such as inaccurate measurement of solutions and contamination solutions.

References

1- SMITH,R.M.Gas and liquid chromatography in analytical chemistry, 1988, John Wiley & Sons, Britain. Pp 47-52, 67-70, 112,113 and 156-157.

2- Braithwaite. A and Smith. F. J. Chromatographic methods 5th edition.,1997, Glasgow. Blackie Academic & Professional. Pp 1-3, 17-20

3- COULSON,J.M & RICHARDSOIN, J. F. Chemical Engineering, Volume 2,4th edition . 1999 Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. Pp 863.

.

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...read more.

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