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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 3184

Effects of acid rain in germination and growth of mustard seeds

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Verónica Rosinha 5IB

Effects of acid rain in germination and growth of mustard seeds

Research question

How is the germination and growth of mustard seeds affected by exposure to acid rain?

Hypothesis:

By carrying this investigation I expect that acid rain will decrease the germination and growth rate of mustard seeds. The lower the pH, the more the germination and growth will be decreased.

General background

Acid rain is caused by the presence of SO2 and NO2 in the air, which dissolve in the water forming sulphuric acid and nitric acid. It usually has a pH value of about 5; however this value can be lower. Due to the presence of acids, the acid rain causes decreased growth in plants, whose usual effects are usually poor root growth and poor leaf development. Poor root growth can result from exposure to soil of low pH, as the shape of proteins – including enzymes – are changed. Poor leaf development might result from deterioration of the cuticle by the acidic rain.

Mustard is a quick-to-mature, easy-to-grow vegetable for greens or salads. For a higher rate of growth of mustard seeds, soils with a neutral pH are required, although an alkaline pH can be tolerated “

...read more.

Middle

th May

Reading no. 4 Thursday, 13th May

Length of root / ± 0,1cm

0,4 / 0,2 / 0,3 / 0,4 / 0,2 / 0,1 / 0,2 / 0,2

4 / 1 / 1,8 / 5 / 5 / 6 / 2 / 3

6 / 2,5 / 1,3 / 7 / 5,5 / 6 / 5 / 1,5

2,7 / 2 / 1,7 / 6,5 / 7,5 / 6,1 / 5 / 3,5

No. of leaves ± 1

-

30

32

36 (one seed has only leaves)

Length of leaves / ± 1mm

-

2mm – 19

3mm – 9

4mm – 2

2mm – 19

3mm – 11

4mm – 2

2mm – 16

3mm – 14

4mm – 4

5mm – 2

Colour of leaves

-

dark green -27

Yellow - 3

Light green – 4

Green - 28

Light green – 4

Green - 32

Length of stem / ± 0,1cm

-

2 / 1,5 / 1,5 / 1,8 / 1,5 / 0,9 / 2,3 / 1

3 / 2,5 / 1 / 4 / 2 / 2 / 1,8 / 3

3,5 / 1,5 / 2,5 / 3 / 2,8 / 3 / 3,2 / 1,8

Table 4 - pH 6

Reading no. 1 Friday, 7th May

Reading no. 2 Monday, 10th May

Reading no. 3 Wednesday, 12th May

Reading no. 4 Thursday, 13th May

Length of root / ± 0,1cm

0,1 / 0,1 / 0,2 / 0,2 / 0,1 / 0,1 / 0,2

0,8 / 0,8 / 0,8 / 1 / 2 / 0,8 / 1,1 / 0,7 / 1,2

0,5 / 0,5 / 0,5 / 0,7 / 0,5 / 0,4 / 0,5 / 0,3 / 0,5

All roots were rotten

No. of leaves ± 1

-

24

36

40

Length of leaves / ± 1mm

-

2mm – 17

3mm - 7

3mm – 28

4mm - 8

3mm – 30

4mm – 10

Colour of leaves

-

Light green – 14

Green - 10

Light green – 12

Green - 24

Light green – 4

Green - 36

Length of stem /  ± 0,1cm

-

1,5 / 1 / 0,5 / 1 / 0,5 / 1,2 / 0,8 / 0,8 / 0,7 / 2

1,4 / 3 / 2,5 / 2 / 1,5 / 1,3 / 1,8 / 1,9 / 1

1,7 / 1,5 / 2 / 1,7 / 2 / 1,2 / 1,8 / 3 / 2,4 / 2

Table 5 - pH 7

Reading no. 1 Friday, 7th May

Reading no. 2 Monday, 10th May

Reading no. 3 Wednesday, 12th May

Reading no. 4 Thursday, 13th May

Length of root / ± 0,1cm

0,3 / 0,2 / 0,3 / 0,4 / 0,3 / 0,2 / 0,2 / 0,2 / 0,2

3,5 / 3 / 3 / 1,5 / 4,3 / 1,5 / 1,3 / 2 / 1,8

4 / 2 / 4,5 / 2,7 / 4 / 2,9 / 5 / 3 / 3,5

5 / 4 / 5,5 / 5 / 5,2 / 2,1 / 7 / 3,8 / 8,2

No. of leaves ± 1

-

36

36

36

Length of leaves / ± 1mm

-

2mm – 22

3mm – 14

2mm – 18

3mm – 18

3mm – 30

4mm – 6

Colour of leaves

-

All green

All green

All green

Length of stem /  ± 0,1cm

-

1,5 / 1 / 1,3 / 1,8 / 2 / 2 / 0,5 / 1 / 1,5

2,5 / 3 / 2 / 2,8 / 2,5 / 2,2 / 2,5 / 3 / 2,5

2,9 / 2 / 2,5 / 3,1 / 2,6 / 3,2 / 2,8 / 2,5 / 2,7

Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (pages 3 and 4) were made with the data collected from the 4 readings made throughout the week.

...read more.

Conclusion

        Although a ruler measuring in mm was used, sometimes there were difficulties in making the measurements due to the lack of space to place the ruler in the Petri dishes – they were perhaps too small – so a bigger container should have been used to place the seeds: that would allow a higher spacing between each seed and would have made the measurements easier to make.

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