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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 5502

Introduction to arodynamics - Investigation into the design features of aircraft.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

image10.jpg

GRADE

ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET

STUDENT NAME

D R  

HARLOW

RANK

Fg Off

No

8401440B

COURSE No/ENTRY

1247/1

ASSIGNMENT TITLE

INTRODUCTION TO AERODYNAMICS – INVESTIGATION INTO THE DESIGN FEATURES OF AIRCRAFT

ASSIGNMENT No

AB 912

VERSION

A

BTEC UNIT

21783P

COMPLETION DATE

13 OCT 2003

TUTOR’S NAME

MR RENE WILKINSON

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

This assignment report is entirely the original work of the author except for the sources and extracts listed in the bibliography at the back of this document. All direct quotes are enclosed within quotation marks and attributed to the source material, including the page number, directly afterwards.

Signature

Date

image10.jpg

image37.jpg

ADVANCED ENGINEERING GROUP

Royal Air Force Cosford

Albrighton

WOLVERHAMPTON

West Midlands

WV7 3EX

Tel: (01902) 372393 DFTS: 95561 Ext 7743

BTEC HIGHER NATIONAL CERTIFICATE IN ENGINEERING

Course No 1247/1


Fg Off D R Harlow EngTech MIIE RAF

INTRODUCTION TO AERODYNAMICS –

INVESTIGATION INTO THE DESIGN

FEATURES OF AIRCRAFT

image00.png

CONTENTS

AIMS

  1. The aim of this assignment is to study the design features of various aircraft including:

a.        Describing and explaining the design features of a fast jet aircraft with reference to transonic and supersonic speeds.

b.        Describing and explaining the design features of a transport aircraft with references to its longitudinal and lateral stability.

INTRODUCTION

2.        In this report I will analyze two aircraft.  The McDonnell Douglas F-15, an agile supersonic multi-role fighter aircraft and the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy a giant American freighter. Analysis has shown many similarities between the two aircraft despite their different roles; however, I have concentrated on their individual areas of interest, highlighting design elements and factors used to meet the requirements for that aircraft.

High Speed Aircraft.  

3.        This group of aircraft are designed for high agility and maneuverability at supersonic speeds, yet they must be stable enough not to cause crew or structural fatigue. Many of these requirements are contradictory and so a compromise has to be met to achieve the best configuration for the ‘average’ sortie.

...read more.

Middle

CRIT number of 0.7 is studied, this is the flight Mach number at which sonic flow will appear at some point on the wing.  This will cause shock waves to appear on the wing leading to rapid increases in wave drag.  If the same wing has a swept leading edge to an angle of 40o and the flow vectors calculated, the component normal to the leading edge, V Cos Λ, is markedly less than the TAS, 0.7 Cos 40o = Mach 0.54.  This can then be manipulated to show the Mach number at which MCRIT will appear, M = 0.7 / Cos 40o = 0.91.  This shows that a wing with 40o sweep can reach speeds of up to Mach 0.91 before sonic flow appears.  Any further sweep will delay the onset of sonic flow and associated drag rise to even higher Mach numbers.

image16.jpg

Figure 8. Sweep compared to Mach number

 High Angle of Attack Performance.  

11.        One of the essential requirements of an air superiority fighter is the ability to engage in high angle of attack manoeuvres with control.  The F-15 has been designed with this in mind and has a number of features to assist high angle of attack manoeuvres.  

a.        Strakes.   Strakes are a relatively new concept in combat aircraft design and are used to great effect on aircraft such as the F-16 and F-18.  A wing strake has little effect at low angles of attack but as the angle of attack increases, the wing strake causes a vortex to be generated.  This vortex moves out over the wing and suppresses the stagnant zone as the angle of attack increases and ensures lift is maintained. These strakes, in conjunction with the upper surface of the engine air intakes will induce a vortex which will maintain lift to very high angles of attack.

image17.png

Figure 9. Lift gained due to strakes

b.        Intakes.

...read more.

Conclusion

Bibliography

Klaus Huenecke, Modern Combat Aircraft Design. Airlife Publishing (1987)

Ray Whitford, Design For Air Combat. Janes (1989)

Ray Whitford, Fundamentals of Aircraft Design. Airlife Publishing 2000

R.H. Barnard and D.R. Philpott, Aircraft Flight.  Longman Ltd (1997)

Janes Defence, 1979-1980 Year Book. Janes (1980)

WH Smith, International Encyclopaedia of Aircraft. WH Smith Publishing (1991)

http://www.csd.uwo.ca/~pettypi/elevon/baugher_other/c-5.html

http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?fsID=84

http://www.csd.uwo.ca/~pettypi/elevon/baugher_us/f015.html

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/4128/hist.html

http://home.att.net/~jbaugher1/f15_2.html

http://www.fighter-planes.com/info/f15.htm

Fg Off Dean Harlow                       Page                                                                                      01/05/2007

...read more.

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