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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 3722

Investigation into the effects of levels of processing.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

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AQA                                        PSYCHOLOGY

PROJECT BRIEF

PROPOSAL FORM

Candidate Name: Noreen Mahmud        

Centre Name: Allerton High School

Centre Number: 37631

Title of work: Levels of Processing

PB1: Identify the aim of the research and state the experimental/alternative hypothesis/es.

(credited in the report mark scheme)

To show how different levels of processing affects the memory.

“People who process information deeply (i.e. semantic processing) tend to remember more than those who process information shallowly (i.e. visual processing).”

PB2: Explain whya directionalor non-directional experimental/alternative hypothesis/es has been selected.                                                                (I mark)

I have used a directional experimental hypothesis because past research, such as that by Craik and Tulving (1975) has proved this.

PB3: Identify the chosen research method (experimental, survey, observation or correlational research) and if appropriate, the design used.                        (1 mark)

I am using a lab experiment as my research method. I am using an independent groups design.

PB4: Identify the advantages(s) and disadvantage(s) of the chosen research method.

(2 marks)

The activity is artificial. However, the findings can be used to help improve the memory. The study is well controlled, so it is unlikely that there are any other factors affecting the findings. However, some participants may guess the aim, and may either try to help the experimenter or hinder. As I am using an independent groups design, there will be no problem with order effects, but individual differences may have an effect on the results.

PB5: Identify potential sources of bias in the investigation and any possible confounding variables.                                                                        (2 marks)

Individual differences may affect the findings. For example, the individual may not understand a particular word, and therefore will not be able to semantically process it.

Also, demand characteristics may affect the findings. Participants may deliberately change their behaviour – social desirability bias.

PB6:

...read more.

Middle

In this case, the question asks the participant to consider the appearance of the word. The participant would be stimulated to process it shallowly in order to answer the question. The participant would then circle YES or NO accordingly.

A stopwatch was used to time the participants; standardised instructions (see appendix) and a questionnaire were given to them. The standardised instructions did not give details of the tasks the participants were to perform, as in they did not say, “Circle the correct answer and then write down as many of the words as you can remember,” as this would have given the aim possibly caused a change in behaviour.

Procedures

Participants were asked to sit separately from the other participants.

Participants were given a copy of the standardised instructions and a questionnaire.

The investigator instructed the participants to answer the questions in the questionnaire.

Participants were given 2 minutes to complete the questionnaire.

Participants were then instructed to turn over the questionnaire and write down as many of the words as they could remember in 1 minute.

The investigator collected their questionnaires and gave them a full debrief of the experiment.

Each of the completed questionnaires was examined, and a total of the number of deeply processed words recalled was found, along with that of shallowly processed words. Deeply processed words were those in the questions where semantic processing was involved, for example:

Is the word a type of flower?                 BEACH                Yes/No

This word (BEACH) is a ‘deep’ word as it instigated deep processing, asking the participant to consider the meaning of the word.

Is the word in upper case?                white                        Yes/No

This word (white) is a ‘shallow’ word, as it instigated shallow processing, asking the participant to consider its appearance.

...read more.

Conclusion

Participant

Shallow Words

Remembered

Deep Words

Remembered

Repeated Words

Anonymous Words

Type of Word Remembered Most

1

2

5

0

2

Deep

2

1

7

0

0

Deep

3

4

7

1

0

Deep

4

2

7

0

0

Deep

5

8

9

0

0

Deep

6

3

5

0

0

Deep

7

4

5

0

4

Deep

8

1

9

0

0

Deep

9

1

7

0

0

Deep

10

4

8

4

0

Deep

11

5

6

0

0

Deep

12

3

6

0

1

Deep

Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test

Participant Number

Number of Words Remembered

Number of Words Processed Deeply

Number of Words Processed Shallowly

Difference in Number of Deep and Number of Shallow

Ranking

1

8

7

1

6

10.5

2

9

5

2

3

5.33

3

8

7

1

6

10.5

4

11

6

5

1

1.33

5

10

6

3

3

5.33

6

13

8

4

4

8

7

9

7

2

5

9

8

17

9

8

1

1.33

9

8

5

3

2

4

10

12

7

4

3

5.33

11

13

5

4

1

1.33

12

10

9

1

8

12

Least occurring sign rank is -

0 ranks are -, therefore the sum of the least occurring sign rank, and the observed value of T, is 0.

Using the critical value table, taking into account that the test is one-tailed and p<0.05, the critical value of T is 7.

In order for the result to be accepted, the observed value of T must be less than the critical value of T. 0 is less than 7, therefore the result is accepted.


References

  1. Atkinson, R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.) The psychology of learning and motivation, Vol.2. London: Academic Press.
  1. Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684.
  1. Craik, F.I.M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 104, 268-294.
  1. Hyde, T.S., & Jenkins, J.J. (1973). Recall for words as a function of semantic, graphic, and syntactic orienting tasks. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 12, 471-480.
  1. Mandler, G. (1967). Organisation and memory. In K.W. Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory, Vol. 1. London: Academic Press.

...read more.

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