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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 2911

memory. This experiment is a replication of the 1973 study conducted by Gordon Bower and Michael Clark entitled Associative Learning through the use of Narrative Stories.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Associative Memory in Relation to Narrative Learning

Tim Flynn

A1034-031

IB Psychology

February 22, 2004

Word Count: 1499

Table of Contents:

  1. Abstract………………………………………………………3

  2. Introduction…………………………………………………..4
  3. Methods Section……………………………………………5-6
  4. Results………………………………………………………7-8
  5. Discussion Section…………………………………………9-10
  6. Appendix………………………………………………….11-19
  1. Script………………………………………………….11-12
  2. Debriefing Notes…………………………………………13
  3. Word List…………………………………………………14
  4. Test Sheet…………………………………………………15
  5. Raw Data…………………………………………………16
  6. Standard Deviation Calculations……………………...17-18
  7. Consent Form……………………………………………..19
  1. References…………………………………………………….20

Abstract:

This experiment is a replication of the 1973 study conducted by Gordon Bower and Michael Clark entitled “Associative Learning through the use of Narrative Stories.” The experiment incorporates two groups of individuals, selected through opportunity sampling, whose undertaking is to memorize a list of words sequentially.  The experiment’s objective was to determine if the original experiment by Bower and Clark was warranted in affirming that the use of narrative stories improves memory word recall. Upon completion, the replication’s statistics made clear that the creation of a narrative story for memorization drastically affected one’s ability to recall words than other methods and thus supported the findings of the original experiment.


Introduction

Throughout Psychology, the topic of Memory has been a focus in experimentation. Through the process of “Chaining,” this experiment seeks to establish a link between narrative learning and associative memory. The social applications of this to learning are immense as it is well suited for natural learning and educational atmospheres.

Bower and Clark first conducted this experiment in 1973.

...read more.

Middle

                                                 questions?

(if no, continue)

                                                (if yes, clarify instructions)

At the same time, another researcher will explain the instructions to the experimental group:

You will be provided a worksheet with six lists, containing 10 words each.  Memorize all six groups of words.  The words must be memorized in sequential order; however, the groups of words do not need to be memorized in order (poster 1).  You must memorize the words using a narrative story.  Here is an example to clarify:(poster2)

                                   Poster 2

image01.png

Are there any questions?

(if no, continue)

(if yes, clarify)

(Bring both groups back together)

Please stay seated and quiet throughout this study period.  You will have 20 minutes to memorize the words.  (passout words)

(20 minutes later)

Time is up.  Please pass forward your word lists. (collect worksheets)We will now pass out the test sheets and pencils. On the test sheet, in red, is the first word of each group.  Note: the groups are not in the same order as on the study sheet.  Please fill in the next 9 words of each group in order.  Any questions?

(10 minutes later)

Time is now up.  Please pass forward your test sheet and pencils.


Debriefing Notes:

You have just participated in a replication of Gordon Bower and Michael Clark’s 1973 experiment which tested memory.

...read more.

Conclusion

81.86        =    3.41

                                                   24


Control Group: Standard Deviation

X

X

(x-x)

(x-x)²

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

1

3.8

-2.8

7.84

1

3.8

-2.8

7.84

2

3.8

-1.8

3.24

2

3.8

-1.8

3.24

2

3.8

-1.8

3.24

3

3.8

-0.8

0.64

4

3.8

0.2

0.04

4

3.8

0.2

0.04

5

3.8

1.2

1.44

6

3.8

2.2

4.84

6

3.8

2.2

4.84

6

3.8

2.2

4.84

7

3.8

3.2

10.24

7

3.8

3.2

10.24

8

3.8

4.2

17.64

9

3.8

5.2

27.04

9

3.8

5.2

27.04

9

3.8

5.2

27.04

Standard Deviation =                           =        246.96  = 3.2

                                                     24


Before participating in the following experiment please read the following and provide your consent:

I, ____________________________, give my consent to participate in an IB/AP Psychology experiment testing memory conducted by Tim Flynn, Beth Greaney and Christina Germinario. I recognize that the results of this study may be published but confidentiality will be in effect at all times. I have the ability to withdraw from the experiment at any point, thereby nullifying the results.

Student Signature: ______________________________

Date: _____________________

If you are under 18 years old have a parent or legal guardian read the following and provide his or her consent:

I give my consent for my son/daughter, _______________________________, to participate in an IB/AP Psychology experiment testing memory conducted by Tim Flynn, Beth Greaney and Christina Germinario. I recognize that the results of this study may be published but confidentiality will be in effect at all times. My son/daughter has the ability to withdraw from the experiment at any point, thereby nullifying the results.


REFERENCES:

Bower, Gordon. “How to…uh…Remember.” Readings in Psychology Today.

Guilford: Dushkin Publishing, 1973.

Czerwinski, Mary, Maarten van Dzntzich, George Robertson, and Hunter

Hoffman. “The Contribution of Thumbnail Image, Mouse-over Text and Spatial Location Memory to Web Page Retrieval in 3D.” 1999.

<http://research.microsoft.com/users/marycz/interact99.pdf). (November 1, 2003).

Hayes, John R. The Complete Problem Solver. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum

        Assoc, 1989.

...read more.

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