• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 2911

memory. This experiment is a replication of the 1973 study conducted by Gordon Bower and Michael Clark entitled Associative Learning through the use of Narrative Stories.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Associative Memory in Relation to Narrative Learning

Tim Flynn

A1034-031

IB Psychology

February 22, 2004

Word Count: 1499

Table of Contents:

  1. Abstract………………………………………………………3

  2. Introduction…………………………………………………..4
  3. Methods Section……………………………………………5-6
  4. Results………………………………………………………7-8
  5. Discussion Section…………………………………………9-10
  6. Appendix………………………………………………….11-19
  1. Script………………………………………………….11-12
  2. Debriefing Notes…………………………………………13
  3. Word List…………………………………………………14
  4. Test Sheet…………………………………………………15
  5. Raw Data…………………………………………………16
  6. Standard Deviation Calculations……………………...17-18
  7. Consent Form……………………………………………..19
  1. References…………………………………………………….20

Abstract:

This experiment is a replication of the 1973 study conducted by Gordon Bower and Michael Clark entitled “Associative Learning through the use of Narrative Stories.” The experiment incorporates two groups of individuals, selected through opportunity sampling, whose undertaking is to memorize a list of words sequentially.  The experiment’s objective was to determine if the original experiment by Bower and Clark was warranted in affirming that the use of narrative stories improves memory word recall. Upon completion, the replication’s statistics made clear that the creation of a narrative story for memorization drastically affected one’s ability to recall words than other methods and thus supported the findings of the original experiment.


Introduction

Throughout Psychology, the topic of Memory has been a focus in experimentation. Through the process of “Chaining,” this experiment seeks to establish a link between narrative learning and associative memory. The social applications of this to learning are immense as it is well suited for natural learning and educational atmospheres.

Bower and Clark first conducted this experiment in 1973.

...read more.

Middle

                                                 questions?

(if no, continue)

                                                (if yes, clarify instructions)

At the same time, another researcher will explain the instructions to the experimental group:

You will be provided a worksheet with six lists, containing 10 words each.  Memorize all six groups of words.  The words must be memorized in sequential order; however, the groups of words do not need to be memorized in order (poster 1).  You must memorize the words using a narrative story.  Here is an example to clarify:(poster2)

                                   Poster 2

image01.png

Are there any questions?

(if no, continue)

(if yes, clarify)

(Bring both groups back together)

Please stay seated and quiet throughout this study period.  You will have 20 minutes to memorize the words.  (passout words)

(20 minutes later)

Time is up.  Please pass forward your word lists. (collect worksheets)We will now pass out the test sheets and pencils. On the test sheet, in red, is the first word of each group.  Note: the groups are not in the same order as on the study sheet.  Please fill in the next 9 words of each group in order.  Any questions?

(10 minutes later)

Time is now up.  Please pass forward your test sheet and pencils.


Debriefing Notes:

You have just participated in a replication of Gordon Bower and Michael Clark’s 1973 experiment which tested memory.

...read more.

Conclusion

81.86        =    3.41

                                                   24


Control Group: Standard Deviation

X

X

(x-x)

(x-x)²

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

0

3.8

-3.8

14.44

1

3.8

-2.8

7.84

1

3.8

-2.8

7.84

2

3.8

-1.8

3.24

2

3.8

-1.8

3.24

2

3.8

-1.8

3.24

3

3.8

-0.8

0.64

4

3.8

0.2

0.04

4

3.8

0.2

0.04

5

3.8

1.2

1.44

6

3.8

2.2

4.84

6

3.8

2.2

4.84

6

3.8

2.2

4.84

7

3.8

3.2

10.24

7

3.8

3.2

10.24

8

3.8

4.2

17.64

9

3.8

5.2

27.04

9

3.8

5.2

27.04

9

3.8

5.2

27.04

Standard Deviation =                           =        246.96  = 3.2

                                                     24


Before participating in the following experiment please read the following and provide your consent:

I, ____________________________, give my consent to participate in an IB/AP Psychology experiment testing memory conducted by Tim Flynn, Beth Greaney and Christina Germinario. I recognize that the results of this study may be published but confidentiality will be in effect at all times. I have the ability to withdraw from the experiment at any point, thereby nullifying the results.

Student Signature: ______________________________

Date: _____________________

If you are under 18 years old have a parent or legal guardian read the following and provide his or her consent:

I give my consent for my son/daughter, _______________________________, to participate in an IB/AP Psychology experiment testing memory conducted by Tim Flynn, Beth Greaney and Christina Germinario. I recognize that the results of this study may be published but confidentiality will be in effect at all times. My son/daughter has the ability to withdraw from the experiment at any point, thereby nullifying the results.


REFERENCES:

Bower, Gordon. “How to…uh…Remember.” Readings in Psychology Today.

Guilford: Dushkin Publishing, 1973.

Czerwinski, Mary, Maarten van Dzntzich, George Robertson, and Hunter

Hoffman. “The Contribution of Thumbnail Image, Mouse-over Text and Spatial Location Memory to Web Page Retrieval in 3D.” 1999.

<http://research.microsoft.com/users/marycz/interact99.pdf). (November 1, 2003).

Hayes, John R. The Complete Problem Solver. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum

        Assoc, 1989.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Comparing length of words in newspapers section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Comparing length of words in newspapers essays

  1. The aim of the experiment was to see if people's attention is affected by ...

    I made sure that the experiment was not andocentric, and chose equal numbers of gender. However, the sample's age range only reflected 17-19 year olds and if I were to redo the experiment, I would try to see if the same results occur in older people.

  2. Assesment of Reading Difficulties in Patient AM Following the Development of Vascular Dementia.

    to read the sentences which had been extracted from whole paragraphs of text and were presented in the previous section as single words. The sentences were extracted from the text and presented in both trials in size 12 print and Times New Roman font.

  1. A dual-task study designed to permit inferences about cognitive processes

    when one task was visual (a letter-matching task) and the other was auditory (simply listening for an auditory tone). However, a later study carried out by McLeod (1977) cited by Edgar. G. 2002) showed that reaction time was not slowed to the same tasks, if the responses required were in separate modes, in this case a button press (manual task)

  2. are words or images recalled better

    Another 10 participants were shown a list of images first. (This was done to see if the first list shown effects in recalling) After 1 minute the lists were taken away and then the participants were given 1 minute to remember as many words/images on the list as they could,

  1. From Renaissance to Modern Literature: Loss of Understanding; Creation of Anxiety

    A set type was made of the original work of literature and it was then pressed onto the paper being used for the copy. If the printer reviewed the copy and detected any errors by comparing the copy to the manuscript, the print run began, and the type set was corrected and used for the proceeding copies.

  2. Investigation into the effects of levels of processing.

    Also, my sample was made up of only 16-17 year olds. The results may not be representative of other age groups. Also the time at which the experiment had taken place may have had an effect on the results. The experiment took place during the last lesson of the day, when students are arguably less focused.

  1. AS Psychology Coursework- Research on Deeper Processing

    - 30 sheets of word definitions with the words missing and the participants will be asked to fill them in. The order of words will be scrambled. (refer to appendix 4) - Pencils and Erasers to write Procedure The experiment took place in an ordinary classroom in an international school in Hong Kong.

  2. THE STROOP EFFECT: FURTHER TESTS OF THE ATTENTION-CAPTURE HYPOTHESIS

    propose that during an initial stage of object discrimination attention is allocated to a particular object, and that only the properties of the selected object are processed automatically. This idea is supported by their finding that the Stroop effect is reduced when the incongruent word and ink colour are spatially separate, even though both are equally visible.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work