• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 2367

The effect of emotional words on repression.

Extracts from this document...


The effect of emotional words on repression. Introduction: Repression takes place when we block memories or shameful events from consciousness. From this we can either completely block out the unpleasant memory, or refrain ourselves from remembering it. Recent research into repression comes from Myers and Brewin. According to Myers ad Brewin, 'repressors' score low on anxiety and high on defensiveness. Myers and Brewin identified female repressors and gave them and other groups the task of recalling unhappy childhood memories as quickly as possible. The repressors took twice as long to recall the unhappy memories as the other groups did. There is evidence from repressors, indicating that an emotional stimulus takes longer to be remembered. Levinger and Clark (1961) also offer support for the idea of repression. In this experiment, people were asked to produce associates to 60 words, 30 of which had neutral meanings, and 30 of which had high negative emotional content. They were then asked to recall those words they had produced. Less emotional words were remembered than neutral. Kline (1981) regarded this study as providing 'irrefutable evidence for the Freudian concept of repression'. On the other hand, results from Kleinsmith and Kaplan (1964) suggested that this effect may reverse after a delay. Levinger and Clark's study was replicated; however, in addition, recall was tested immediately and after a delay. ...read more.


Telephones sounding, may also distract the participant, therefore they were asked to switch their phones off. Randomisation was used, as there were two sets of word lists, therefore participants were not only looking at the same set of words in the same order. The instructions given, however, were same for both word lists. Results: Table 1: Table to show the measures of central tendency and dispersion of emotional and neutral words recalled. Emotional Neutral Mean 4.5 4.1 Mode 4 4 Median 4 4 Range 5 9 Standard Deviation 1.62 2.32 The mean number of words recalled was higher in the emotional section, however the standard deviation was higher in the neutral words section, meaning that the data was more spread out. This could be due to individual differences of people, where some words may have more meaning to the participant than others The modes and medians of both studies were identical, showing that there was not a huge difference with the number of words recalled from each section. Bar graph to show the difference between the two means: The bar chart shows the difference between the two means. One is that of the neutral condition, and the other is that of the emotional condition. The mean is higher in the emotional condition. The experimental hypothesis is most likely to be supported by the results of the study, as there was a difference between the two conditions. ...read more.


Do not spend very long on the words, and work through the list as quickly as possible. You will have 1 1/2 minutes to complete this task:" and the second page: "Now write down all of the words you had generated on the previous page. Please write down as many as you can remember. You have TWO minutes to do this." Word Lists: The two word lists used are as follows: LIST 1: 1. GUN 2. TOILET 3. FOOD 4. DEATH 5. BLOOD 6. STAB 7. GAME 8. WAR 9. BOOK 10. TERROR 11. PEOPLE 12. MURDER 13. KILL 14. JUICE 15. PAIN 16. CHAIR 17. PRINTER 18. SCHOOL 19. CORPSE 20. DOG LIST 2: 21. DEATH 22. DOG 23. PEOPLE 24. PAIN 25. MURDER 26. WAR 27. PRINTER 28. SCHOOL 29. FOOD 30. KILL 31. TOILET 32. BOOK 33. BLOOD 34. GUN 35. STAB 36. GAME 37. JUICE 38. CHAIR 39. TERROR 40. CORPSE Calculations: Emotional Condition: x f x� f x� 2 5 4 20 3 2 9 18 4 6 16 96 5 3 25 75 6 4 36 144 7 4 49 196 549 Mean: Median: Mode: Range: Standard Deviation: Neutral Condition: x f x� f x� 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 16 3 4 9 3 4 7 16 112 5 4 25 100 6 3 36 108 10 1 100 100 533 Mean: Median: Mode: Range: Standard Deviation: Psychology Coursework The effect of emotional words on repression Parveen Wariabharaj Page 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Comparing length of words in newspapers section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Comparing length of words in newspapers essays

  1. memory. This experiment is a replication of the 1973 study conducted by Gordon ...

    An explanation of what the experiment entails and the option to opt out was administered to the subjects, as well as efforts made by the researchers to the subjects' privacy and debriefing. Participants: In the experimental and control groups, there are four participants with ages ranging form 16-18 years with a mean age or 17.

  2. An Investigation into the Stroop Effect using words and shapes.

    "I would like to thank you for taking part. The purpose of these results is to investigate whether the colour words interfered when you were concentrating on reading the surrounding shape. If u took a longer amount of time when reading the surrounding shapes this may be true.

  1. Are High Imagery Words Easier To Retrieve From The Short Term Memory Than Abstract ...

    Visual information is translated into sound for it to be received by the primary acoustic store. Finally, the visuospatial scratchpad (VSSP) or the inner-eye is also used for rehearsal. This time it deals with visual and spatial information. For example, visualising the streets to give someone directions.

  2. The aim of the research is to find out whether or not interference does ...

    i.e. the time taken to correctly identify the colour ink that the words are written in. To do this experiment the experimenter needed to do a word list. In order to create this word list the experimenter got twenty bits of paper and on the paper he/she wrote a colour from

  1. Investigation into the effects of levels of processing.

    Is the word in upper case? Is the word in upper case? Is it the word a colour? Is the word a type of building? Is the word in upper case? Is the word a person's name? Is the word in upper case? Is the word a name of a sport?


    blue above red, printed in blue. Thus the independent variables manipulated were type of word (incongruent / congruent), similarity of words (identical / different), number of incongruent words (one / two) and position of incongruent word (top / bottom).

  1. The aim of the experiment was to see if people's attention is affected by ...

    The difference between the ranges in the two conditions shows that in the conflicting condition it was much harder to read correctly, as the longer range shows. Statistical Analysis A Wilcoxon test was applied to the set of results since the design was related and it was ordinal for significance

  2. An experiment to look at the primacy and recency effect on recalling a word ...

    The dependant is the amount of correct words recalled by the participants, in particular the last ten words of a thirty word list, to distinguish the recency effect. Method: Design The investigation I plan to do is an experiment, I chose this research method as it will give quantitive data, and can establish cause and effect.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work