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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 2367

The effect of emotional words on repression.

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Introduction

The effect of emotional words on repression. Introduction: Repression takes place when we block memories or shameful events from consciousness. From this we can either completely block out the unpleasant memory, or refrain ourselves from remembering it. Recent research into repression comes from Myers and Brewin. According to Myers ad Brewin, 'repressors' score low on anxiety and high on defensiveness. Myers and Brewin identified female repressors and gave them and other groups the task of recalling unhappy childhood memories as quickly as possible. The repressors took twice as long to recall the unhappy memories as the other groups did. There is evidence from repressors, indicating that an emotional stimulus takes longer to be remembered. Levinger and Clark (1961) also offer support for the idea of repression. In this experiment, people were asked to produce associates to 60 words, 30 of which had neutral meanings, and 30 of which had high negative emotional content. They were then asked to recall those words they had produced. Less emotional words were remembered than neutral. Kline (1981) regarded this study as providing 'irrefutable evidence for the Freudian concept of repression'. On the other hand, results from Kleinsmith and Kaplan (1964) suggested that this effect may reverse after a delay. Levinger and Clark's study was replicated; however, in addition, recall was tested immediately and after a delay. ...read more.

Middle

Telephones sounding, may also distract the participant, therefore they were asked to switch their phones off. Randomisation was used, as there were two sets of word lists, therefore participants were not only looking at the same set of words in the same order. The instructions given, however, were same for both word lists. Results: Table 1: Table to show the measures of central tendency and dispersion of emotional and neutral words recalled. Emotional Neutral Mean 4.5 4.1 Mode 4 4 Median 4 4 Range 5 9 Standard Deviation 1.62 2.32 The mean number of words recalled was higher in the emotional section, however the standard deviation was higher in the neutral words section, meaning that the data was more spread out. This could be due to individual differences of people, where some words may have more meaning to the participant than others The modes and medians of both studies were identical, showing that there was not a huge difference with the number of words recalled from each section. Bar graph to show the difference between the two means: The bar chart shows the difference between the two means. One is that of the neutral condition, and the other is that of the emotional condition. The mean is higher in the emotional condition. The experimental hypothesis is most likely to be supported by the results of the study, as there was a difference between the two conditions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Do not spend very long on the words, and work through the list as quickly as possible. You will have 1 1/2 minutes to complete this task:" and the second page: "Now write down all of the words you had generated on the previous page. Please write down as many as you can remember. You have TWO minutes to do this." Word Lists: The two word lists used are as follows: LIST 1: 1. GUN 2. TOILET 3. FOOD 4. DEATH 5. BLOOD 6. STAB 7. GAME 8. WAR 9. BOOK 10. TERROR 11. PEOPLE 12. MURDER 13. KILL 14. JUICE 15. PAIN 16. CHAIR 17. PRINTER 18. SCHOOL 19. CORPSE 20. DOG LIST 2: 21. DEATH 22. DOG 23. PEOPLE 24. PAIN 25. MURDER 26. WAR 27. PRINTER 28. SCHOOL 29. FOOD 30. KILL 31. TOILET 32. BOOK 33. BLOOD 34. GUN 35. STAB 36. GAME 37. JUICE 38. CHAIR 39. TERROR 40. CORPSE Calculations: Emotional Condition: x f x� f x� 2 5 4 20 3 2 9 18 4 6 16 96 5 3 25 75 6 4 36 144 7 4 49 196 549 Mean: Median: Mode: Range: Standard Deviation: Neutral Condition: x f x� f x� 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 16 3 4 9 3 4 7 16 112 5 4 25 100 6 3 36 108 10 1 100 100 533 Mean: Median: Mode: Range: Standard Deviation: Psychology Coursework The effect of emotional words on repression Parveen Wariabharaj Page 1 ...read more.

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