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  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 1385

The relationship between level of parental education and SAT scores

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction

Background Research

The literature has consistently shown that parent education is an important factor in children’s academic achievement. Many studies have attempted to examine how parenting behaviors, such as the structure of the home environment, influence children’s achievement outcomes. Some say that specific behaviors of parents, such as harsh parenting, nurturing and warmth can greatly influence the children’s mentality leading to higher education achievement. In fact, parent involvement, such as counting the number of parent’s involvement in volunteering, coming to school meetings, or conferences.1 has been shown to be an important variable that positively influences children’s education. Researchers have examined the relationships between parent involvement and children’s education achievement correlate to each other.

There a study involving the correlation between SAT scores and family income by the New York Times. The article explaining the result of the relationship says that the wealthier a student’s family is, the higher the SAT score. They used information from the College Board. Consider the graph below.

image00.jpgSource: College Board 2

The graph has shown that there is a very strong positive correlation between income and test score.

1http://www.lewiscenter.org/research/inwhatways.pdf

2http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/27/sat-scores-and-family-income/

Objective

...read more.

Middle

99.6) for 2010 indicates that there is no significant difference between those critical reading scores of 2006 and 2010.

Consider similar graphs on mathematics and writing comparing 2006 to 2010.

image02.png

S.D. image03.pngimage03.png105.8 for average mathematic scores in year of 2006

S.D. image03.pngimage03.png104.7 for average mathematic scores in year of 2010

image04.png

S.D. image03.pngimage03.png97.2 for average mathematic scores in year of 2006

S.D. image03.png98 for average mathematic scores in year of 2010

Similarly, both of the math and wring scores do not show any statistical significant differences based upon the overlaps of the standard deviation error bars.

Now, since there is not enough evidence to conclude that the highest parental education does not affect the children’s SAT scores, inferential statistics has to come in and play a role in hypothesis testing.

When testing the null hypothesis of independence between the row and column variables in a contingency table, the requirements are described below.

1). The sample data are randomly selected, and are represented as frequency counts in a two-way table

2). The null hypothesis is the statement that the row and column variables are independent; the alternative hypothesis is the statement that the row and column variables are dependent.

3). For every cell in the contingency table, the expected frequency E is at least 5.

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Conclusion

sis and support the claim that the proportions are different. Again, since the P-value which is 0.0271 is less than the significance level a = 0.5, the null hypothesis can be rejected. It appears that the students’ critical reading scores are dependent on the highest level of their parents’ education.

Contingency Table of the Students’ Mathematics Scores and their Parents’ Highest Education

No H.S. Diploma

H.S. Diploma

Associate Deg.

Bachelor’s Deg.

Graduate Deg.

2006 Math Scores

474

491

442

554

663

2010 Math scores

461

342

428

620

492

Degrees of freedom:  4

Test Statistic, , image05.pngimage05.png: 40.3171

Critical , image05.pngimage05.png:        9.48772

P-Value:             0.0000

Reject the Null Hypothesis

Data provides evidence that the rows and columns are related

image07.png

Statdisk

Contingency Table of the Students’ Writing Scores and their Parents’ Highest Education

No H.S. Diploma

H.S. Diploma

Associate Deg.

Bachelor’s Deg.

Graduate Deg.

2006 Writing Scores

356

470

579

619

669

2010 Writing scores

469

523

621

534

640

Degrees of freedom:  4

Test Statistic, , image05.pngimage05.png: 25.0801

Critical , image05.pngimage05.png:        9.48772

P-Value:             0.0000

Reject the Null Hypothesis

Data provides evidence that the rows and columns are related

image09.png

Statdisk

Again, since the all the P-value are very low which are all less than the significance level a = 0.5, and image05.png values are high, the null hypothesis can be rejected. The hypothesis testing of homogeneity concluded that it provides enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis and support the claim that the students’ overall SAT scores are dependent of the highest level of their parents’ education.

...read more.

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