• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 4330

This investigation looked to see whether the height on the shore would affect the size or aperture size of Gibula Umbilicalis. Gibula Umbilicalis are a species of topshell which live on the rocky shore, they can be found in the

Extracts from this document...


'Investigating the Affect of the Height on the Rocky Shore on the Ratio Length to Aperture of Gibula Umbilicalis Topshells' Title of Investigation: THE AFFECT OF THE HEIGHT ON THE ROCKY SHORE ON THE RATIO LENGTH TO APERTURE OF GIBULA UMBILICALIS TOPSHELLS This investigation looked to see whether the height on the shore would affect the size or aperture size of Gibula Umbilicalis. Gibula Umbilicalis are a species of topshell which live on the rocky shore, they can be found in the upper, middle or lower shore and surely must have adapted to live in the upper and middle shore where living conditions are harsher, due to there being less time when the shore is covered by water. As marine creatures they require water to respire, so how do they cope during the time they are out in the air? A preliminary experiment was carried out to choose which heights on the shore would be best to carry out the investigation. A transect with height intervals was used and a count made of the Gibula Umbilicalis at different heights. The two furthest points (i.e highest and lowest) where there was a supply of Gibula Umbilicalis were chosen. A continuous horizontal transect was carried out at these heights and the lengths and aperture size recorded of the topshells found. For each topshell a ratio was made dividing length by aperture diameter. Then a t-test was performed on the two sets of results and showed there was a significant difference between the ratios of the ones in the middle shore and the lower shore. The ones from the middle shore had relatively larger lengths and smaller apertures. From the results it was concluded that the Gibula Umbilicalis in the middle shore had adapted to hold more water, by having a larger shell and lose less of it through the smaller aperture. Contents Rationale Planning - Hypothesis - Variables - Equipment - Procedure - Risk assessment - Preliminary experiment Implementing - Choosing heights - Running mean Observing and recording - Results - Anomalies Interpreting and evaluating - Data Processing (t-test) ...read more.


And repeat the method above. I chose to move down the shore, because I will start my investigation in the morning so by the time I have collected my results for the upper shore the tide will be out and it will be safer to walk about the lower shore. Results I will make a results sheet to take with me when I head out to the rocky shore to carry out my investigation. Here is a sample of the table I will make up to record my results in: Result No. Length Aperture Length Aperture I will use the t-Test to check whether there is a significant difference between my results. The t-Test is a good choice for this because it uses two sets of results and shows how much the results overlap in relation to the number of results. Risk assessment (See appendix for risk scales) Hazards Likelihood Severity Risk Rating Consequent Precautions Slipping on wet rocks 3 X 2 = 6 Wear appropriate footwear, be careful Cold winds from sea 3 X 1 = 3 Wear warm clothing, keep warm, Problems with sharp acutely angled rocks 2 X 2 = 4 Watch footing while moving across the shore Carried out to sea 1 X 4 = 4 Avoid getting too near to the sea. Attacked by a Crab 1 X 2 = 2 Be careful not to disturb marine creatures Preliminary Investigation I will perform a short investigation before I start my big one to help decide on the best way to perform my main investigation. I will stand somewhere on the shore and use my calculator to generate a random number, if it is even I will head right or if it is odd I will head left, then I will generate another random number, between 1 and 50 (depending on the width of the shore), and I will take his many steps either right or left. ...read more.


Limitations I believe that my results are very reliable as the closeness of them shows they are an accurate reflection of the length and size of aperture of gibbula umbilicalis on the rocky shore. The accuracy is a good sign that they are reliable. By controlling lots of variables I made sure that the results were reliable. The abiotic factors were the same at both heights and so this proves that the results were not affected by them. So in consideration my results are reliable. Appendix Shell measuring method = Measured distance Cross-section of a Cross staff Risk assessment Risk assessment Severity: 1=slight inconvenience - with verbal reassurance the activity can continue 2=minor injury - after first aid the activity can continue 3=injury/illness - medical attention required, activity can not continue 4=Major injury - hospitalisation/ use of emergency services 5=Fatality Likelihood: 1=highly unlikely 2=may not occur 3=does occur 4=occurs from time to time 5=likely to occur Risk = severity x Likelihood If > 8 then bring attention to the group and use supervision If > 10 activity must not go ahead Preliminary results Below are the results from my preliminary experiment. I counted the number of Gibbula Umbilicalis found inside my quadrat as I did a transect, with 0.6 m intervals, down the rocky shore. Height count 1 count 2 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 4 2 1 5 12 10 6 12 13 7 16 16 8 29 22 9 12 15 10 9 8 't -Test' The t test uses two sets of results and produces a 't value' using the formula: After you have a t value you need a critical value. They can be found from this table: As my degree of freedom is more than 30 I use the degree of freedom ?. My level of significance is 0.05 so therefore my critical value is 1.960 If t < critical value then you must accept the null hypothesis If t > critical value then you must reject the null hypothesis ?? ?? ?? ?? Michael Cutting 13MD Biology Coursework - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Comparing length of words in newspapers section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Comparing length of words in newspapers essays

  1. The aim of the experiment was to see if people's attention is affected by ...

    I did this by placing the lists face down, and the participants were then told when to turn them over. This was to avoid an increase in efficiency at reading the words, especially where the conflicting list was concerned. I made sure that each participant was given the non- conflicting

  2. Physics Investigation: The Cantilever

    The particles at the bottom will be pushed together proportionately to the load because they are in compression. The forces get larger, and the repelling force which is bigger, pushes the particles away from each other. So they are not disordered. We can also say that they obey Hooke's Law.

  1. Consumer responses to wine bottle back labels

    no clear explanatory variables emerge for the differences in attitudes held by the sample. In particular, it is somewhat surprising to discover that neither gender nor wine knowledge appear to have influenced the respondents' attitudes towards back labelling. Thus, both men and women had almost identical response profiles to the

  2. Investigating the Levels of Processing Theory

    Asked them if they'd be willing to take part in a psychology experiment, ensuring they were in the age range I wanted and also checking they were not psychology students. If they agreed I briefed them, using the brief contained in the appendix.

  1. Statistical Investigation

    There are more international news articles in the broadsheet than in the tabloid. I will verify this by calculating the percentage of international news pages in each newspaper. Solutions 1. Tabloid: number of images on front page: 3 Image 1: 33.5 x 10.5 = 351.5 Image 2: 4.5 x

  2. Investigation into the effects of levels of processing.

    put forward an alternative theory to the Multi-store Model. This was the Levels of Processing theory. This suggested that constant rehearsal was not necessary for storing information in the LTM store. The Levels of Processing Model proposes that the level at which information is processed determines which store it will go into.

  1. Investigation into the effect of homophone training on reaction times for a forced choice ...

    One block was trained using homophones, which encouraged them to think about the sounds of words priming them phonologically. The other block was trained using regular non words with no homophones encouraging them to focus more on how the word was presented visually.


    This response conflict hypothesis also assumes that attention plays no part, with all potential responses being processed. However, more recent research has tended to contradict this theory. Adopting the Gestaltist distinction between objects and their properties, Kahneman and Henik (1981)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work