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• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Maths
• Word count: 1349

To observe how, the length and amplitude of a pendulum string, affect the time period for one oscillation. Prediction - I predict that the length

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Introduction

Preliminary Experiment: Pendulum

Aim – To observe how, the length and amplitude of a pendulum string, affect the time period for one oscillation.

Prediction – I predict that the length of the pendulum string is directly proportional to the time period of one oscillation. Also, that the amplitude of the string is directly proportional to the time period. I.e. if I double the length the time period doubles and if I double the amplitude the time period doubles.

Hypothesis – In my prediction I stated that that the length of the pendulum string is directly proportional to the time period of one oscillation. Also, that the amplitude of the string is directly proportional to the time period. This is backed up on the scientific theory that if the pendulum is raised at a greater angle it will have to cover a greater distance. Also, the scientific theory backing up the length is Galileo’s findings in which he came up with the formula:

T = 2π √ L/g

This formula has only two values which are not constant, time and length. Hence, length and time are directly proportional, this supports my prediction.

Variables: For length as a factor.

Independent variable – I am changing the length of the string.

Middle

Repeat these steps again. Except increase the length of the string each time by 10cm until cm. E.g. 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, 50cm, 60cm. Once the results have been collected and recorded. You will be able to calculate the time period for one oscillation from the average time period. This can be done by dividing the average time period by 10.

Method: for Amplitude

1. Use the ruler to measure approximately 10cm of string. Leave a few centimetres extra, as you are required to tie it, this will compensate for the extra string need to tie a knot.
2. Cut the string at the selected measurement.
3. Set up the clamp stand.
4. Tie the bob to the string.
5. Use the scissors to slit the cork half way from the edge to the centre.
6. Fit the protractor inside the slit, so that it is secure firmly.
7. Place the cork onto the clamp making sure everything is intact.
8. Tie the other end of the string to the clamp.
9. Ensure that you line up the string on the 0° point on the protractor.
10. Take hold of the bob and extent the string it to its full length firmly.
11. Raise the bob to the side aligning it to the 10

Conclusion

This is backed up on the scientific theory that if the pendulum is raised at a greater angle it will have to cover a greater distance. Also, the scientific theory backing up the length is Galileo’s findings in which he came up with the formula:

T = 2π √ L/g

This formula has only two values which are not constant, time and length. Hence, length and time are directly proportional, this supports my prediction.  I don’t think that there were any mistakes made in the experiment apart from minor measurements. I tired to be as accurate as I could. I used a metre ruler although it was very hard to measure the string with a meter ruler. Sometimes it was difficult to use a protractor to measure the amplitude as accuracy is hard to attain. My method was a suitable method for conducting this particular type of experiment and investigation. To improve the experiment I would have used a wider range of readings and I would have been able to see the limit I could reach with the length and amplitude. This way I could have better results and they could support my prediction more, even though it did. I would have also liked to investigate how the mass of the bob affects the time for one oscillation.

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