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# 'What affects the size of craters?'

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Introduction

GCSE Science Investigation Craters on the Moon This investigation 'What affects the size of craters?' is based on the idea of meteors creating craters on the moons surface. Scientists believe that when a meteor collides with the moon at a high speed a dip is created surrounded by a ring of mountains (created because material from the impacting object and crust fly outwards at high speeds). Often the walls of the craters will collapse to from landslides. It would be very challenging to assess what affects the size of craters on the moon but a miniature replica can be made using a tray of sand and a small ball. Plan When investigating what affects the size of a crater it is very important you only change one variable at a time. Therefore making the investigation a fair test. ...read more.

Middle

To keep it fair I will + Use a ruler (making sure it is parallel to the ground) to make sure the ball is dropped from the right height. + Remove the ball as carefully as possible +Always measure from the widest point +Only change the one variable Results Height of fall (cm) Width of crater (mm) 1st Time 2nd Time 3rd Time Average 5 37 36 37 37 10 41 39 42 41 20 47 46 47 47 30 52 50 53 52 40 55 54 53 52 50 58 58 56 57 60 60 61 59 60 70 63 64 60 62 80 67 66 66 66 90 69 68 68 68 100 70 70 76 72 110 70 71 71 71 120 72 73 71 72 200 80 79 83 81 Conclusion Looking at my results I can see my prediction was correct, the higher the ball was dropped from the wider the crater was. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think I repeated each height enough times to make this investigation reliable but there is room for improvement if I was to redo it. This could be done by continuing to increase the height until the width of the crater did not continue to get wider. If I repeated this experiment I think it would be useful to use more scientific and reliable equipment. Callipers could be used to measure the width of the crater whereas better technology could be used to drop the ball. I think it would be worth making a contraption for realises the ball to ensure no pressure is inflicted on the ball when dropped. The widths may have been easier to measure if larger equipment was used because then the range of measurements would be greater. If all of these improvements where carried out I think the new results would be more accurate. Rhiannon Holder ...read more.

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