• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Maths
  • Word count: 1833

What are the main clinical techniques available for the manipulation of human reproduction? Briefly describe the risks and benefits of each approach.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What are the main clinical techniques available for the manipulation of human reproduction? Briefly describe the risks and benefits of each approach.

Fertility refers to the ability of a couple to conceive through sexual activity. Infertility is therefore defined as the inability of a couple to conceive after a year of regular sexual intercourse without the use of contraception. It is said that approximately 80% of healthy fertile women are able to conceive during this time (www.britannica.com).

Causes

Causes of infertility involve both female and male factors.In rough terms, about one-third of infertility cases can be attributed to male factors, and about one-third to factors that affect women.  For the remaining one-third of infertile couples, infertility is caused by a combination of problems in both partners or, in about 20 percent of cases, is just unexplained (www.timelinescience.org).

Probably the most common cause of infertility in women is a malfunctioning of the complex hormonal interactions, which control the menstrual cycle. The monthly cycle is controlled by the pituitary gland, which is governed by another gland, the hypothalamus. A failure to ovulate is normally caused by the woman’s body failing to make enough of the pituitary hormones, or releasing them at the wrong time. The result can be an inadequate production of the female hormones and consequently a disruption of normal ovulation. image00.png

...read more.

Middle

image01.jpg

If the procedure is successful, an embryo will implant itself into the uterine lining and pregnancy will begin. The embryos can be transferred to the uterus at different stages of development. Embryo transfer is performed on day 2 or 3 when the embryo consists of four to eight cells. Research shows that embryos can now be cultured to the blastocyst stage without effects on pregnancy rates. Embryo transfer places the embryos in the uterus at an earlier stage than would occur naturally. With blastocyst transfer, the embryos are placed in the uterus at later stage (day 5 or 6). This fits in with the natural time the embryo would arrive in the uterus. A higher implantation rate has been observed with blastocyst transfer (50%), compared with embryo transfer (25%), however, there is an increased risk of having monozygotic twins through blastocyst transfer (www.conceptfert.com.au).

image02.jpg

(www.nature.com)

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer – GIFT

Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) is a well-established form of assisted conception treatment, nearly as old as in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). This procedure is used when the upper end of the fallopian tubes are blocked, thus the ova is unable to pass from the ovary into the fallopian tube naturally in order for fertilisation to take place. It is similar to IVF in that the ova and sperm are collected, but these are then injected directly into the upper end of the fallopian tube where fertilisation takes place.

...read more.

Conclusion

www.britannica.com).

In conclusion, infertility studies and treatments will always be controversial. It comes down to personal point of view and public opinion. The ethical debate will continue with questions such as “Are we playing God?” it may also be suggested that the use of antibiotics, immunisation and chemotherapy are also a means of playing God as they have the ability to change and save lives. Scientific knowledge and technological advances will continue to progress and more and more difficult questions will be raised.

Word count: 1659


Bibliography

Clegg, C. J. & Mackean D. G., (1994). Advanced Biology: Principles & Applications. John Murray, London

Jones, M., (1991). Infertility, Judy Piatkus, London.

Purves, W. K., Sadava, D., Orians, G H., & Heller, H. C., (2001). Life: The Science Of Biology, 6th Edn, W. H. Freeman & Co, Gordonsville, VA.

Woods, S. & Elstein, M. (September 2003). Infertility and Bioethics. Biological Sciences Review..Volume 16, Phillip Allan Updates, Oxfordshire.

www.brittannica.com  (07/11/03)

http://www.conceptfert.com.au/facts/blastocyst_transfer_patient_information.htm  (07/11/03)

http://www.conceptfert.com.au/facts/assisted_hatching.htm  (07/11/03)

www.nature.com/fertility/content/images  (07/11/03)

http://www.timelinescience.org/resource/students/inferty/treativf.htm  (07/11/03)

http://www.timelinescience.org/resource/students/inferty/ethics.htm  (07/11/03)

www.fertilitycentre.com  (07/11/03)

Fiona James

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Height and Weight of Pupils and other Mayfield High School investigations section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Height and Weight of Pupils and other Mayfield High School investigations essays

  1. The Reproductive System - The male and female reproductive systems are different with both ...

    Sperm cells are foreign to the female body and therefore should be recognised and attacked by its immune system like any other foreign body but substances secreted in the semen protect them that inhabit the local immune system. Sperm deposited into the vagina, which is a 7cm muscular tube that

  2. a comparison of natural and synthetic fibres

    There is also a smaller probability of unnoticed anomalies being included because each fibre was tested five times. The techniques used were easy to repeat if care and time was taken. I think that because of these factors I can have a high level of confidence in my conclusion being correct.

  1. Liquid chromatography is a technique used to separate components of a mixture to isolate ...

    Empirically, the equation for HETP in HPLC is given by: HETP = A + C�n Where n is an empirical constant in the range 0.3-0.6. The A (eddy diffusion) term turns out to be small and almost a constant value and is therefore neglected.

  2. Was Plato’s View of the Nature and Capabilites of Women any More Positive than ...

    Therefore a woman's soul lacks the essential qualities to be able to make informed decisions about anything. They lack moral virtue in the same moderation, and have different levels of temperance and courage: "..the courage of a man is shown in commanding, of a woman in obeying."

  1. An eating disorder is a serious disruption of a persons eating habits, it some ...

    Many don't take compliments very well. When someone says they look nice a person with anorexia wouldn't believe them. Hiding weight loss many will hide the fact that they've lost so much weight, by methods such as wearing baggy clothes and they get irritated when questioned about their eating.

  2. Ecology in biology, we set of for a week at Juniper Hall Field Centre ...

    Q4- why is metres used as an SI unit. Q5- why are 30 samples carried out in order to conduct the investigation. Q6- why is the soil mixed with lime water and not just normal water. Q7- why have I used random sampling. A1- 10 metres is used for the sake of covering the whole tree in width (horizontally)

  1. Discuss the relationship between sexual selection and human reproductive behaviour

    This is because male gametes are less costly and less limited than females. This is reflected in the real world as males compete for quantity of females and female select for quality of males and their resources. As a consequence of differential parental investment men stand to gain from polygyny and women stand to gain from monogamy.

  2. 1.1 Historia ubezpiecze nawiecie i w Polsce

    Mozna je okreslic jako urzadzenie gospodarcze zapewniajace pokrycie przyszlych potrzeb majatkowych, wywolanych u wszystkiego typu kredytodawc�w przez nieotrzymanie od okreslonych kredytobiorc�w w scisle okreslonych sytuacjach naleznosci za udzielony przez kredytodawce kredyt14. Z definicji wynika, iz ubezpieczenia finansowe sa tym rodzajem ubezpieczen majatkowych, kt�rych istnienie i rozw�j sa mocno zwiazane z gospodarka rynkowa, tj.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work