• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

It has to be questioned just how much a part the media has played in these changes, and how the history of the twentieth century can be seen to be inseparable from the history of the mass media.

Extracts from this document...


A2 Media Studies Essay Wider Contexts The changes that have occurred over the last century have shaped life, as we know it today. It has to be questioned just how much a part the media has played in these changes, and how the history of the twentieth century can be seen to be inseparable from the history of the mass media. The end of World War I is often seen as the catalyst for change, that the twentieth century begun when World War I ended, this was also a turning point in the development of the media. At the beginning of the new century, the media consisted purely of newspapers and periodicals, detailing very basic local news on a small scale, simply intended to inform and perhaps provide some light hearted entertainment. The media began or it could be argued, was forced, to develop in America due to growing industries and demand in steel, oil and railroads. The jobs created by these developing industries attracted millions of immigrants, many who spoke poor English, and relied upon the newspapers to learn the language. Publishers saw the potential in the vast population to make profits. Stories that sold the papers were the most important, usually to do with local government and business issues. During this time basic forms of advertising were used, and as industrialisation and mass production grew, the advertising field began developing. Newspaper profits came only from sales and advertisements. The beginnings of sensationalism in journalism directly influenced the way that advertisers portrayed their products. The motion picture actually preceded radio and television as an entertainment medium. At first, simple 'films' were shown at places like fairgrounds. As audiences and profits grew, basic cinemas were set up. Exhibitors hired films to show from distributors rather than outright buying them. Films became longer, and began to tell more complex stories. In 1900, the radio was introduced by an American engineer, Reginald A Fessenden, who transmitted the first human voice by radio to a receiver over a mile away. ...read more.


Confidence returned, and banks began to restart transactions. Listeners felt they were being spoken to personally, in contrast to the feeling of being addressed anonymously as in the newspapers. Adolf Hitler, the leader of Germany, invaded Austria on March 13, 1938. He first obtained Sudetenland from the Czechs by signing the Munich Pact. Before then, cultural and human interest stories of radio networks in Europe were re-broadcast in America. Edward R. Murrow, at first an unknown correspondent who had become the European news chief of CBS in 1937, improvised the first coordinated radio broadcast to America from multiple European locations. During the 20-day period of diplomatic talks in Munich, America heard live broadcasts from 14 European cities. The voices of Hitler, Czech President Benes, British Prime Minister Chamberlain and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini were heard first-hand. The radio coverage of the Munich crisis confirmed its power to inform and influence its audience. Radio helped the war events become a reality to those far away from it. Radio advertising bloomed. The messages of radio advertising were similar to that of mass magazine advertising. Advertisers paid less attention to the special qualities and focused more on what people wanted or hoped to be. They claimed their products helped people feel young, rich and envied Throughout the 1930s, David Sarnoff, president of Radio Corporation of America, started the force to develop the television. In 1937, 17 experimental television stations emerged. Television was publicly introduced at the 1939 World's Fair in New York. The phenomenon of bringing both pictures and sound to a home audience would soon shake the position of radio and print media. However, World War II continued to prevent its development. During the 1930s and 1940s, five large companies dominated the American film industry: Fox, MGM, Warner Brothers, Paramount and RKO, while Rank and ABPC dominated the British film industry. Some of the most famous films of all time were made during this period: Gone With the Wind in 1939, Citizen Kane in 1941 and Casablanca in 1942. ...read more.


Everyone was plugging in for what was to come. The Internet links people together through their computer terminals with modems connected to telephone lines. A web of networks and software allows users from all around the world to communicate with one another. The Internet is now open to the world. The number of people accessing the net at any one time is unsure, though it is probably in the tens of millions. This also means that most of the content on the Internet is unfiltered and unchecked. The debate over content and public access of web sites will go on into the 21st century. Advertising in the mid-1990s evolved greatly with the rapid growth of the Internet. However, online advertising was relatively modest because the Internet was very new and its effectiveness was uncertain. The total advertising revenue in 1997 was estimated at $400-$699 million, 12 times more than that of 1995, but still only a small portion of all advertising spending. One new advertising mixture to take hold of the Nineties was the "advertorial". Which resembles regular columns or features, biased advertisements posing as unbiased editorials. Cross-marketing and media consolidation have become more widespread in the 1990's. A network station owned by Disney began having more talk shows visit Disneyland or mentioning their films. Movie tie-ins with fast food chains and breakfast cereals dominate advertising during children's programming. Wireless communications continued to develop in the 1990s. Cordless phones, pagers and mobile phones are becoming more commonplace. The nineties also saw the introduction of wireless computer networks, direct-broadcast satellite television, digital wireless cable TV networks and a global phone service. As we enter the 21st century, technology is developing to make these systems cheaper, more reliable and easier to use. The impact of such technology and communication tools is phenomenal. However, who knows what the future holds, how will the media expand, change, evolve in one week, or one decade. When globalisation and technology set the pace, the media play a key role in the life of the world. They not only relate the facts, but undeniably exert some influence on them too. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Audience and Production Analysis section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Audience and Production Analysis essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the pluralist view of the mass media ...

    5 star(s)

    An example of this is the dispute between the (now ex-) editor of the Mirror, Piers Morgan, and its owner, Philip Graf. Piers Morgan published photographs in the Mirror showing British troops abusing captured Iraqi soldiers. These pictures caused a huge upset in the British Army, government and in the general public.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    "The mass media today is part of everyday life" Using relevant theories and studies ...

    4 star(s)

    poverty/war images) have declined and less controversial issues have been put in their place. This is due to pressure from advertisers not to place their adverts near to the disturbing pictures as it would affect the buying mood of possible consumers.

  1. 'Discuss the factors that shaped the invention and development of television in the UK ...

    These lines of light make signals that are converted into electrical impulses. These are then amplified, transmitted and reconverted into the image shown on the television screen. Karl Braun invented this system with the use of a Cathode-Ray tube- "the word 'cathode' means positive and the word 'ray' was fashionable

  2. Food Inc Movie review. FOOD, Inc discusses the downfall and degradation of Americas ...

    However, lawyers from multinational corporations such as Monsanto do not want this to happen, arguing that it causes unnecessary fear in customers and deters people from buying their products. In my opinion, labelling of foods containing GMOs should be mandatory.

  1. Compare the way cultural difference is represented in two films (East is East and ...

    is also an American citizen, but that does little in the shop keeper's eyes as he calls security to remove Farhad. This indicates Farhad's lost battle in trying to obtain power in this event. Additionally in 'Crash', the mixed race woman does not want to get molested by the older white police officer.

  2. Discuss and illustrate the production of ideology by the contemporary mass media. Focus upon ...

    The English have done this for centuries, and the 'Heritage Industry' in contemporary Britain continues the tradition of affirming Englishness as a 'natural' cultural identity to be taken as normative. Using the cinema as an example, the attitudes outlined above were carried in the imagery and the texts, which established

  1. The Representation of Women in Advertisements through the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Folgers Similarly to 1920?s, the 1950s it was still considered important for women's lives around their family and home. In the Folgers? 1950 advert it demonstrates how inferior the wife is to her husband in the first scene. The wife is wearing scruffy clothing, which can indicate or connote that she?s deprived similar to the quality of her coffee.

  2. How well does the film "GLORY" portray black people during the American Civil ...

    So this scene shows Black men in a VERY positive light. Clip 4 Rifle Training Starting of, during the first part of the clip there is a sense of high achievement and strength when Thomas (one of the Black soldiers)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work