• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

This research sought to examine the relationship between television news portrayals of African Americans and subsequent behavioral responses toward African Americans.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Abstract: This research sought to examine the relationship between television news portrayals of African Americans and subsequent behavioral responses toward African Americans. While this research was not able to clearly illuminate the specific link between portrayal and behavior, this research is able to suggest a model for future studies into such relationships. [Headnote] This research sought to examine the relationship between television news portrayals of African Americans and subsequent behavioral responses toward African Americans. While this research was not able to clearly illuminate the specific link between portrayal and behavior, this research is able to suggest a model for future studies into such relationships. The portrayal of African Americans in television drama, news and sports coverage has been analyzed by journalists and scholars (see Corea, 1993; Dates, 1990; Entman 1990, 1992, 1994; Jackson, 1989; Lule, 1995; MacDonald, 1992; Rada, 1996; Rainville & McCormick, 1997; Staples & Jones, 1985; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1977; and U.S.Riot Commission Report, 1968). While the literature has addressed the content of these media portrayals (or-as the research has shownmisportrayals), and speculated on their impact, few protocols have been suggested for assessing their effect upon African Americans or upon others in the television audience. To measure the effect of a media portrayal, a study design must include a reasonable behavioral result from viewing the portrayal. At the same time the behavioral result must be captured in an unobtrusive way that will not compromise the ecological validity of the study. One construct that meets both these criteria-and employed in this study-is the prosocial expression of altruism, or a willingness to help. In investigating a relationship between portrayal and effect, other possible effects on the behavioral response must be controlled or explained. For this research, the personality construct dogmatism was used as a means to identify audience members who can be influenced by the nature of a media portrayal. Dogmatism allowed an adaptation of the empathy-altruism hypothesis; a causal model extensively validated in social psychological research to explain the internal processes which produce altruism, an audience member's willingness to help a person similar to those in a given media portrayal. ...read more.

Middle

Dogmatism scores were not normally distributed. The short-form dogmatism scale yielded a Cronbach's alpha of .65. This procedure of categorizing dogmatics is consistent with previous studies employing the dogmatism scale (see Kerwin & Shaffer, 1992; Orysh, 1991). To assess whether a median split could have affected results, supplemental analyses were run in which study participants were categorized by quartile and tercile splits on dogmatism: the results did not yield any differences from the median split. Dependent Variables Legitimacy. To find scenarios evoking need which accurately represented high and low legitimacy, six potential scenarios were pretested on 109 students in a lower division general education course. Of these six scenarios, three were intended to be high in legitimacy whereas the other three were intended to be low in legitimacy. Legitimacy was manipulated by altering the cause for the perceived need in the post-session questionnaires. For example, one scenario had a classmate expressing a need for some tutoring. In the high legitimate scenario, the cause behind that need was a student missing class because of a death in the family. In the low legitimate scenario, the cause behind the need was a student missing class because of partying too much. Pretest participants were asked to rate the legitimacy of the recipient's excuse on a 7 point Likert scale with 1 being "very low," and 7 being "great." The most and least legitimate scenarios (M= 6.5, SD = .76 and M = 1.8, SD = 1.1, respectively) were selected for inclusion in the main experiment. Both scenarios contained an almost identical number of words per sentence and characters per word. For the scenario rated the least legitimate, the Flesch Reading Ease was 69.4 and the Flesch Grade Level was 8.0. For the scenario that was rated the most legitimate, the Flesch Reading Ease was 69.2 and the Flesch Grade Level was 8.0. Analysis of pretests showed significant correlations between the legitimacy of need and subject's willingness to help. ...read more.

Conclusion

1-25). Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press. Eisenberg, N. E. & Fabes, R. A. (1991). Prosocial behavior and empathy: A multimethod developmental perspective. In M.S. Clark (Ed.) Prosocial behavior: Vol 12 (pp. 34-61). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Eisenberg, N. E. & Miller, P. A. (1987a). Empathy, sympathy, and altruism: Empirical and conceptual links. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development(pp. 292-316). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eisenberg, N. E. & Miller, P. A. (1 987b). The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 10 (1), 91-119. Entman, R. M. (1990). Modern racism and the images of blacks in local television news. [Reference] Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7, 332-345. Entman, R. M. (1992). Blacks in the news: Television modern racism and cultural change. Journalism Quarterly, 69 (2), 361-361. Entman, R. M. (1994). Representation and reality in the portrayal of blacks on network television news. Journalism Quarterly, 71 (3), 509-520. Lule, J. (1995). The rape of Mike Tyson: Race, the press and symbolic types. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 12 (2), 176 - 196. Orysh, L. K. (1991). Exploring a model to understand white students racial attitudes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Penner, P. S. (1984). Altruistic behavior: An inquiry into motivation. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Piliavin, J. A., & Charng, H. (1990). Altruism: a review of recent theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 16,27-65. Rokeach, M. (1960). The open and closed mind. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Schroeder, D. A., Dovidio, ). F., Sibicky, M. E., Matthews, L. L., & Allen, J. L. (1988). Empathic concern and helping behavior: Egoism or altruism? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 333-353. Schwartz, S. H. & Fleishman, J.A. (1978). Personal norm and the mediation of legitimacy effects on helping. Social Psychology, 41, (4), 306-315. Sears, D. 0. (1988). Symbolic racism. In P A. Katz and D. A. Taylor (Eds.) Eliminating racism: Profiles in controversy (pp. 53-85). New York: Plenum Press. Shaffer, D. R., & Case, T. (1982). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Narrative section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Narrative essays

  1. Discuss the way in which 'Neighbours' by Tim Winton and 'Stolen Car' by Archie ...

    Neighbours settings on the other hand are not so descriptive and use much less literary tools such as similes and metaphors, compared to Stolen Car, which any sentence that has a description of a setting is drowned in comparisons of any type.

  2. The mass media has played a major role in structuring public perceptions of crime ...

    graffiti in your local area" I also aim operationalise these concepts well in my method, so I would add definitions that are easily understood. Word Count 1278 Page 4 Methodology The methodology that I am going to adapt for my investigation will be a positivist methodology.

  1. How has James Cameron adapted and presented the true story of the Titanic?

    This gives us a powerful view of the Titanic ship. In the film we can tell that the film will establish a sense of mystery and foreboding at the start because in the first scene we can see the wreckage of the Titanic and non-diegetic music is played it is

  2. James Bond - Bond(TM)s female characters are fully liberated women. They use Bond. Consider ...

    Then when she goes to kiss Bond he accidentally pokes her with his gun and she jumps back. That incident has a bit of sexual innuendo and when she asks him why he carries it around he jokes that he has an 'inferiority complex'.

  1. Consider the similarities and differences Between a TV news report and a TV Documentary ...

    Warriors had a lot more time to be scripted and filmed, as it doesn't have a deadline in the way news clip does, so the result is that it is more 'polished', and includes a lot more details, and extra effects like music add to the atmosphere.

  2. In this assignment I will be discussing a range of different study skills and ...

    The Study Skills Handbook). To develop good note taking skills it is also important to have good reading skills so that one knows and is able to summarise the main points in a text. (Cottrell S (2003) The Study Skills Handbook)

  1. James bond review

    (continue to write about gadgets) Another Bond characteristic is his endless supply of catchphrases, such as when he is in a posh bar or restaurant he will order a "dry martini, shaken not stirred", which is now one the most famous lines of all time in films.

  2. top gear review

    things which make car enthusiasts and professionals excited aren't the things which make Mr Average Motorist excited. In an era when people are being encouraged to drive less (a stance which Clarkson is infamous for vehemently opposing) then banging on about the appropriately-monikered Reasonably Priced Car is not interesting to

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work