who is 2 blame
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By definition, all media texts are re-presentations of reality. This means that they are intentionally composed, lit, written, framed, cropped, captioned, branded, targeted and censored by their producers, and that they are entirely artificial versions of the reality we perceive around us. When studying the media it is vital to remember this - every media form, from a home video to a glossy magazine, is a representation of someone's concept of existence, codified into a series of signs and symbols which can be read by an audience. However, it is important to note that without the media, our perception of reality would be very limited, and that we, as an audience, need these artificial texts to mediate our view of the world, in other words we need the media to make sense of reality. Therefore representation is a fluid, two-way process: producers position a text somewhere in relation to reality and audiences assess a text on its relationship to reality. Extension/Restriction of Experience of Reality By giving audiences information, media texts extend experience of reality. Every time you see a wildlife documentary, or read about political events in a country on the other side of the world, or watch a movie about a historical event, you extend your experience of life on this planet. However, because the producers of the media text have selected the information we receive, then our experience is restricted: we only see selected highlights of the lifestyle of the creatures portrayed in the wildlife documentary, the editors and journalists decree which aspects of the news events we will read about, and the movie producers telescope events and personalities to fit into their parameters. Truth or Lies? Media representations - and the extent to which we accept them - are a very political issue, as the influence the media exerts has a major impact on the way we view the world.
It will probably be of no use to you in your essays. HINT: Why not develop your own ideas on this topic? After gender and ethnicity, age is the most obvious category under which we file people, and there are a whole range of judgements which go along with our categorisation. We quickly deem other people too old, or too young, or criticise them for being immature or fuddy duddy. We criticise mature women for going about as mutton dressed as lamb, and young girls for tarting themselves up as jail bait. Film stars who start to show signs of aging in their forties are swooped on with cries of horror by gossip columnists ("Movie star gets wrinkles... and her tits start to sag" shocker!!) while those who succumb to the surgeon's knife are written about with equal distaste ("Movie star can't raise eyebrows and her tit's DON't sag" equal shocker!!!). Thanks to the media, we appear to live in an age obsessed world: a world obsessed with youth and its attendant beauty. Old people are often subject to the most rigid stereotypes of all (old = ugly, weak, stupid). The future looks pretty bleak for all of us. I can't even find any other websites which deal with age and representation. By denying that ageing is a natural part of the process, we condemn ourselves to an eternal adolescence (God! No!) and do not acknowledge that our tastes may grow and change. Will you still want YOUR MTV when you're 80? Things are changing, however; as the baby boomers of the 1950s and 1960s move on towards their 'Third Age', they demand the same consumer comfort they have always done, and also demand the right to see themselves fairly represented on TV. There have been some high profile representations of the elderly in recent years (and I'm not talking about Bruce Willis playing Ross's Dad in "Friends").
loved?) or do they have space (power? insecurity?). Are they where they need to be (centred?), or do they have a space into which they are headed? Technical Codes: Lighting Lighting is part of the mise-en-scene, and is one of the deliberate choices made by any producer of an image. The choice is very basic: Natural light or Artificial Light Most photographs you see that make part of print ads or magazine illustrations use artifical light. Moving images commonly use artifical light too - traditionally film stock was not sensitive enough to respond to any but the brightest of daylight (FACT FANS: this is why Los Angeles became a centre for film production back in the 1900s - they have approximately nine months of sunshine in a year). However, with new digital technologies, natural lighting is increasingly used by film-makers, although most mainstream producers still prefer the control that artificial lighting techniques give them. When examining any lighting set up, you need to consider the following: Where is the light coming from (front, sides or back)? How intense is the light, and what time of day might it be said to represent? Most commonly, three point lighting is used: there is a filter in PhotoShop that will let you play around with the different effects of this. You will hear (or read) three types of lighting referred to. Key The main source of light on the subject, usually coming from around 45° above and either to the left or the right of the camera Fill This is a soft light, which, as it name suggests, fills in the shadows, to avoid sharp areas of contrast caused by the main light. Back This comes from, obviously, behind the subject, and makes it stand out agains the background The important thing to remember about lighting is that shadow is just as important. We see patterns of light and dark - that is how our eyes create images, and we read both light and its absence as equally significant. The whole meaning of an image can be changed if you alter the shadows.
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