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COMPARE ND CONTRAST TH CULTURAL STATUS OF TWO COUNTRIES UK ND CHINA

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Introduction

Running Head: COMPARE ?ND CONTRAST TH? CULTURAL STATUS OF TWO COUNTRIES UK ?ND CHINA Compare and Contrast the Cultural Status of Two Countries U.? and China [Name of the writer] [Name of the institution] TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT 4 INTELLECTU?L DISABILITY 4 CAUSES OF INTELLECTU?L DISABILITIES IN U.? 5 CAUSES OF INTELLECTU?L DISABILITIES IN CHINA 8 ESTIMATES OF DISABILITY POPULATION IN CHINA 9 ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSE 10 MALNUTRITION 11 SUB-CLINICAL IMPACTS 12 IQ BELOW 70 12 SOCIAL MODEL OF INTELLECTU?L DISABILITY 13 * Th? social perspective 14 * Social care ?nd social work 14 * Identifying what user's ?nd carers want 15 * Assessment 15 * Advocacy ?nd empowerment 16 * ? place to live 17 SOCIAL MODEL IN CHINA 17 SOCIETY ATTITUDE 19 CONCLUSION 21 REFERENCES 23 BIBLIOGRAPHY 28 Compare and Contrast the Cultural Status of Two Countries U.? and China Abstract Th? paper examines th? links between degrees of intellectu?l disability, challenging behaviour, service utilisation ?nd cost for ? group of people with intellectu?l disabilities living in care accommodation in England ?nd China. There were strong, non-linear, interdependent links between degrees of intellectu?l disability, behaviour, service use ?nd costs. Higher costs were associated with more severe intellectu?l disabilities ?nd more challenging behaviour. Sector ?nd scale of residence also influenced cost in quite complex ways. Access to ?nd use of services by people with intellectu?l disabilities was not always appropriately linked to perceived or actual needs. Policy maker's ?nd local commissioning agencies need to explore th? sources of cost variation between individuals, sectors ?nd types of accommodation in order to achieve national policy objectives on quality, choice, and independence ?nd inclusion. Intellectu?l Disability Intellectu?l disability is characterized both by ? significantly below-average score on ? test of mental ability or intelligence ?nd by limitations in th? ability to function in areas of daily life, such as communication, self-care, ?nd getting along in social situations ?nd school activities. ...read more.

Middle

1960s to overcome famine. But these are now blamed for causing intellectu?l deficits because they do not take up essential micronutrients. They have also emigrant other nutritious home-grown food sources. In addition, UNICEF has found that th? exclusive use of breast milk substitutes causes an IQ deficit of eight points (average IQ=100) (Lancioni et al, 2002, pp 15-20). Sub-clinical impacts 'Clinical' outcomes (observable disability which can be traced to particular causes) are often indicative of much broader 'sub-clinical' impacts. In th? 1970s, Herbert Needleman studied th? sub-clinical impacts of lead in 3000 US children. This revealed ? strong link between high body-burdens of lead, ?nd behavioural ?nd intellectu?l difficulties recorded by teachers. In ? follow-up study in 1988, Needleman found that th? same children had displayed higher drop-out rates, lower class standing, increased absenteeism, ?nd lower vocabulary ?nd grammatical reasoning scores. IQ below 70 IQ tests were created as an attempt to measure ? person's abilities in several areas, including language, numeric ?nd problem-solving. Th? average score is 100. People with ? score below 75 will often, but not always, have difficulties with daily living skills. Since factors other than mental ability (depression, anxiety, etc.) can yield low IQ scores, it is important for th? evaluator to rule them out prior to concluding that measured IQ is "significantly below average". Th? following ranges, based on th? Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), are in standard use today: Class IQ Profound mental retardation Below 20 Severe mental retardation 20-34 Moderate mental retardation 35-49 Mild mental retardation 50-69 Borderline mental retardation 70-79 Social Model of Intellectu?l Disability People with intellectu?l disabilities have often been devalued ?nd disadvantaged throughout history. Valuing People looks to redress this, on th? basis of four key principles: * rights * independence * inclusion Positive working relationships between primary care, secondary care ?nd social care are essential in assisting individual's ?nd their carers to achieve valued lifestyles. ...read more.

Conclusion

premise that people want, ?nd have ? right to, an identity ?nd ? role in society defined by their humanity, rather than their disparate abilities. However, people with differences have existed in all societies; th? degree to which they are integrated or excluded varies according to predominant cultural perceptions. (www.bmj.com) Developing an understanding of th? attitudes that predominate in ? community, which in turn influence th? actions of its members, is critical if we are to bring about social change ?nd evaluate th? effectiveness of public policy in promoting an inclusive society. Given that negative attitudes toward people with intellectu?l disabilities can seriously impede th? progress of their inclusion in schools, th? workplace, ?nd th? wider community, particular care must be taken to monitor changing social attitudes toward these persons to identify ?nd circumvent any return to segregation ?nd eugenics as th? norm in society (Beange H, McElduff A, 1995; pp 595-604). Attitudes are latent or referred psychological processes that are present in all people ?nd are given expression or form when evoked by specific referents. Attitudes are acquired through experience over time ?nd are socially constructed. They can be considered ? learned disposition or internal biasing mechanism that focuses ? person's attention ?nd provides ? framework within which he or she encodes experience ?nd th? guiding parameters for his or her behavior. Moreover, attitudes are composed of positive ?nd negative reactions toward an object, accompanied by beliefs that impel individuals to behave in ? particular way (Kapell et al, 1998, pp 69-79). Conclusion We need to change these inequalities. High quality research needs to be supported to develop th? evidence base. We need to ask obligatory questions during th? development of every piece of work. "How might this affect specifically people with intellectu?l disabilities?" "Could it possibly disadvantage some people with intellectu?l disabilities?" "What additional supports or reasonable adjustments are required so that it equally benefits people with intellectu?l disabilities?" Additionally, th? population with intellectu?l disabilities requires specifically targeted public health interventions. ...read more.

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