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Study the phonological, syntax, and lexical charachtaristics of Afro-Caribbean Spanish.

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Introduction

Dara Brown Spanish Dr. Mondada April 30, 2004 Afro-Carribean Spanish I chose to study the phonological, syntax, and lexical charachtaristics of Afro-Caribbean Spanish. As a result of European colonization and slave trade between the late 15th and early 18th century Spanish and West African languages were combined to create Caribbean Spanish pidgin or Creole. Spain acquired the majority of its slaves from Portuguese traders and since Africans came from different places and spoke different languages they could not communicate. As a result the Spanish pidgin language was created. "Pidgin refers to a contact language used by two groups, one being socially dominant but neither speaking it as a first language.1 Pidgin is a simplified form of a language used as a rudimentary means of communication among speakers with different languages. "Pidginization is the process through which native speakers of two separate languages develop a contact language so they may function in the same society".2 A pidgin language may stabilize when it obtains grammatical and lexical properties and becomes used as a secondary form of language called Creole. "Creolization is the process through which a person exposed to a pidgin acquire a creole as their first language; creoles may be spoken by children as a native language, but not by their parents, so that a new language is created within a generation".3 Creole is created from one of five European languages English, French, Portuguese, Dutch or Spanish. One form of pidgin that developed into a creole language is Bozal. Bozal "...is a term referring to slaves born and raised in Africa, who spoke European languages difficulty" and is mixed with Spanish and West African Languages. (Lipinski p.2) Bozal was spoken from the 15th century to the 18th century in Peru, Mexico, Columbia, Cura�ao, Bolivia, Guatemala, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. "Latin American Bozal Spanish was first described by writers like Sor Juan In�s de la Cruz, at the beginning of the 17th...and demonstrate the existence of Bozal Spanish in the highland mining areas of Peru, Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia and Guatemala." ...read more.

Middle

Cuando empezaban Simularities and diffences Once literary `black Spanish' became established in Golden Age drama, the linguistic characteristics move sharply away from pidgin Portuguese, and acquire traits typical of Spanish `foreigner talk,' together with considerable phonetic deformation. After 1550, use of (a)mi as subject pronoun rapidly disappears (Lipski 1991), as does use of bai/vai for `to go.' Unstable gender and number assignment remain, as do incorrectly conjugated verb forms, although use of the uninflected infinitive becomes increasingly rare. Confusion of ser and estar is still found from time to time, augmented by use of sar, and loss of the copula occurs sporadically. (Lipski p.3) "by the end of the 18th century...Cribbean bozal texts appear, Begin loosing bozal creating other languages. The forced integration between slaves and Europeans not only shows the process how a new language is created but also how languages are also lost due to the socioeconomic circumstances encroached upon a culture, forcing them to communicate in other languages or dialects. African languages were lost not only because of slavery but also because the slaves who spoke creole were favored over the ones who only spoke Bozal. The African Languages died because the africans were forced by their circumstances to avoid the language associated with their economic exploitation forcing the creolization of Bozal into Afro Carribean Spanish. Oraciones y Syntax: 1. Double negative 2. Yo te boy � tra� uno traje pompad� Yo te voy a traje uno pompad�. 3. 4. folklore collection de Mason and Espinosa 1918: 361 Nanqui toy ma m�kinley... Negro nalla en Africa viv�a limbre como mariposa ... Nanll� lan d�a se cur�a tran de tiguiri y li�n, limbre como el mismo sol ... Vine aqu� nan Poto Rico de una borega nanfondo, me llevaron lo nemonios, nontron se jicieron rico ... Palenquero Palenquero is a language spoken in San Basilio Columbia. The palenque at San Basilio was founded by negros cimarrones in the 16th and 17th centuries. ...read more.

Conclusion

Donde tu ta quida? (Where do you live?) Ta quida yo na______. (I live at_______) Quien tu padre? (Who is your father?) Donde tu di anda? (Where are you going?) Di anda yo na escuela. (I am going to school.) Di anda yo na plaza.(I am going to the market.) Cosa tu ta lliva? (What are you carrying?) Ta lliba yo mi mga libro.(I am carrying my books.) Ta lliba yo mi basket.(I am carrying my basket.) Qui hora ya ba? (What time is it?) A las dos ya dela tarde.(It is already two in the afternoon.) Cosa esti? (What is this?) Cosa aquel? (What is that?) Conclusion The Integration of language happens when populations coexist. Pidgin language was created because the slaves had no one to speak their languages with and were forced to learn the European languages. The forced integration between slaves and Europeans not only shows the process how a new language is created but also how languages are also lost due to the socioeconomic circumstances encroached upon a culture, forcing them to communicate in other languages or dialects. African languages were lost not only because of slavery but also because the slaves who spoke creole were favored over the ones who only spoke Bozal. The African Languages died because the africans were forced by their circumstances to avoid the language associated with their economic exploitation forcing the creolization of Bozal into Afro Carribean Spanish. Grammar than with whether or not speakers who have given up their ancestral languages and cultures have adapted beneficially to their current, changed or changing, socioeconomic ecologies. However managed to maintain some of the grammatical structure of the native African language and morphology of African and Spanish words. of the socio-economic majority Their creole children learned the colonial vernaculars and would later on serve as models to bozal slaves of the plantation stage. 1 Cook, 1993, p. 69 2 Cook, 69 3 Anderson, 1997 4 Lipski p. 2. http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/m/jml34/borboz.pdf. 5 Cook, 1993 6 Lipiski p.2 http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/m/jml34/borboz.pdf. 7 www.elboricua.com 8 Lipski, El Espanol de America p. 134 9 http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/m/jml34/borboz.pdf. 10 Lipski p.13 http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/m/jml34/afrodom.pdf. 11 http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/j/m/jml34/borboz.pdf. ...read more.

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