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Acute Responses to Exercise: Summary Table

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Introduction

´╗┐Acute Responses to Exercise: Summary Response Definition Type of Response Effect of Exercise The benefit of this response / why it happens How it occurs Ventilation The amount of air breathed in and out per minute. The product of Tidal Volume (TV) x Respiratory Rate (RR) Respiratory Increases To increase the volume of oxygen in the lungs that can be diffused into the blood and transported to the working muscles Greater contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm Diffusion The movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Occurs in the alveoli of the lungs and the muscle capillaries. Respiratory and Circulatory Increased Capacity In order to increase the transfer or oxygen into the blood stream and delivery to the muscle cells. Also, to dispose of carbon dioxide which is produced as a result of the aerobic energy system Caused by an increased surface area of the alveoli and muscle tissue Cardiac Output (Q) ...read more.

Middle

The muscle pump (muscular contractions) 2. The respiratory pump (diaphragm increases abdominal pressure) ? veins in thorax and abdomen emptied towards heart 3. Veno constriction (constrictions of the veins) Redistribution of blood flow The redirection of blood away from areas where it is not needed (e.g. spleen, kidneys) to areas where it is (e.g. working muscles) Cardiovascular Redistribution To increase the amount of oxygen being delivered to the organs that need it during exercise (e.g. working muscles) Increasing blood flow to the skin assists in the regulation of body temperature through heat exchange with environment Vasoconstriction occurs in arterioles supplying oxygen to the inactive areas and vasodilation occurs in arterioles supplying oxygen to the working muscles Oxygen Consumption (VO2) / Arterio-Venous Oxygen Difference (A-VO2 diff.) The volume of oxygen that can be taken up and used by the body. The difference in oxygen concentration in the arterioles compared to the venules. Cardiovascular Increases To increase the amount of oxygen that is delivered and used by the working muscles Caused by an increase in cardiac output and the amount of oxygen extracted ...read more.

Conclusion

the muscle fibres it stimulated Muscular Increased number recruited / increase frequency of messages To enable the correct number of muscle fibres to be recruited depending on the intensity of the activity ? ?all or nothing principle?. If a motor unit receives the impulse, all its fibres will contract By electrical impulse signals that are sent from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) Energy Substrates The chemicals that are required to resynthesis ATP i.e. PC, glycogen, triglycerides Muscular Decrease Once ATP stores are depleted, PC, muscle glycogen and muscle triglycerides are all used to resynthesise ATP and so they get used up As a result of the three energy systems which are used to resynthesise ATP Body Temperature A change in the internal temperature of the body Muscular Increases until it is controlled by 1. Sweat glands produce sweat 2. Increased blood flow to skin (via vasodilation) Mechanisms work to prevent an increase in core body temperature. (However, during high intensity, blood vessels vasoconstrict which hinders heat transfer) Heat is a by-product of converting chemical energy into mechanical energy ...read more.

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