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Before I started to even design my personal exercise programme, I had to find out my general level of fitness.

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Before I started to even design my personal exercise programme, I had to find out my general level of fitness. This is so as I can determine my individual strengths and weaknesses in order to know what I need to be focusing on in the PEP. The fitness tests chosen must be relevant to my sport. Overall fitness in every area is needed for tennis and therefore a variety of fitness tests need to be chosen as I can establish a base from which to determine training loads. The tests can also be used to evaluate whether or not my training programme was successful. The components of fitness are either health related, also known as physical fitness (health benefits maybe gained through improvements in these components), or skill related. Health related factors are physiologically based and determine the ability to meet the physical demands of an activity. Heath related factors include: * Strength * Speed * Cardio-respiratory endurance/aerobic capacity * Muscular endurance * Flexibility * Body composition Skill related factors, also known as motor fitness, are based on the neuromuscular system and determine how successful a particular skill can be performed. Skill related factors include: * Agility * Balance * Co-ordination * Reaction time * Power In tennis, all of the health and skill related components are required to determine a successful outcome. Therefore I need to perform fitness tests, which will test these components in order to identify particular areas of weakness, which I can improve upon in my PEP. I should perform the fitness tests before and after the training programme, in order to analyse whether or not the training programme met my demands. I.e. to improve in the specific areas. Strength Strength is the maximum force exerted during a single muscle contraction. There are three types of strength, maximum strength, elastic strength and strength endurance. In tennis, strength endurance is the most important type. ...read more.


SMASH 1. The feeder stand in the centre of the court on one side. 2. The performer runs in from the baseline and touches the net 3. The performer then runs backwards to get into position to do a smash into the sectioned off area, fed by the feeder. SPEND 2 MINUTES ON EACH STATION, WITH A 30 SECOND REST BETWEEN EACH. REPEAT THE CIRCUIT, BUT KEEP ALTERNATING BACKHAND AND FOREHAND ON EACH STATION. Tennis volley and smash circuit EXERCISE A 1. A feeder throws ten forehand volleys followed by ten backhand volleys to the performer to receive. The specific different volleys can be practised, and the feeder can aim the ball more accurately if they throw it. EXERCISE B 1. Section off the left and right corners of the feeder's court with cones. 2. The performer is fed the ball, alternating backhand and forehand volleys. 3. A backhand must be aimed into the right hand corner, and a forehand must be aimed into the left hand corner. This enables me to practise winning points, as volleys should be long in the court. EXERCISE C 1. Play a game just inside one service box. 2. Points can only be won on a volley, and a non-volley loses a point. Play up to 10 points. This encourages the use of volleys and so can be rhythmically practised under pressure, as in a game situation. EXERCISE D 1. Hit a ground stroke from the base line, run to the net touch it with your racket and the feeder hits a high ball, where you run slowly backwards to the correct position on the court and hit a smash. Repeat the exercise 8 times. This is very realistic to what would happen in a game. Once you return a shot, it is a good idea to run to the net as this is very defensive, the opposition may respond by lobbing you, in which you can run backwards and hit a smash. ...read more.


The heart becomes stronger and the myocardium (muscle of the heart) contractility increases. Bradycardia As a result of training, resting heart rate decreases, as well as the heart rate for any given workload. This is known as bradycardia. There is an increase in stroke volume due to the increased size of the ventricular cavity from hypertrophy of the heart. The cardiac muscle has been strengthened due to training. This means that the heart does not have to beat as often, as the ventricles can more completely fill up with blood. Recovery time decreases As a result of endurance training, the time it takes for your heart to return to its original resting heart rate decreases. This is because your body adapts to the increased demand placed upon it, and in time your heart adapts by becoming bigger so that it has to beat less, and therefore recovery time decreases. If I carried on training intensely for six months to three years I could achieve all of the mentioned factors, in order to improve my game of tennis. For the skeletal system Skeletal tissues become stronger as exercise adds stress upon the bones, which encourages the laying down of bony plates and the deposition of calcium salts along the lines of stress. This reinforces the criss-cross matrix and improves the tensile stress of the bone. The criss-cross matrix is the cancellous bone, and is constantly reorganised in response to new alterations of stress. It combines strength with the minimum of weight so that bones can be easily moved but can take much stress. Hyaline cartilage is a resilient tissue found on articulating surfaces of bones. It protects the bone from wear and reduces friction between the articulating bones. It thickens as a result of exercise, increasing the amount of protection. Tendons, which join muscles to the bone, thicken thus are able to withstand greater muscle force. A greater extensibility and elasticity of the muscle fibres from exercise leads to a greater range of movement and so increased flexibility. 3434 1 ...read more.

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