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Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Submaximal Exercise under Aerobic Conditions

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Introduction

University of Hertfordshire Faculty of Health and Human Sciences Department of Nursing and Paramedic Sciences Integrated Biosciences for Paramedics Module Code 1ANN0002 Semester B Laboratory Report Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Submaximal Exercise under Aerobic Conditions Michael A Jones Submission date 30 May 2003 1. Introduction Cardiovascular and respiratory mechanisms must work in a combined fashion to support the oxygen (02) needs of exercising tissue, and to eliminate from the body the waste products that are brought about by increased cellular metabolism, namely heat and carbon dioxide (C02), thus maintaining homeostasis. In order to record the body's cardiovascular and respiratory response to exercise, the cohort was split into sub-groups where two from each sub-group were measured for their physiological changes during a period of rest, a period of submaximal exercise, and a recovery period. During exercise the body's demand for (02) is increased to maintain adequate tissue cell perfusion, and as a result of this the cardiovascular system responds by increasing heart rate (HR) The respiratory systems response to exercise as stated by (Wetter T. et al 2000) is that "as exercise intensity increases from mild to moderate effort, alveolar ventilation must increase proportionally to prevent a build up of (CO2) which would soon acidify the arterial blood" . This increase in (C02) is picked up by central chemoreceptors which in turn send sensory impulses to the respiratory centre in the brain stem to increase the rate and depth of ventilations, therefore excreting excess (CO2) ...read more.

Middle

3) 78% transported as bicarbonate ions" (Tortora & Grabowski 2003). When (C02) enters the red blood cells via diffusion a reaction occurs with water and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) resulting in carbonic acid (H2CO3) which then disassociates into (H+) and Hydrogen Bicarbonate (HC03-) as shown in the following equation. C02 + H20 H2C03 (H+) + HC03- Carbon Water Carbonic Hydrogen Bicarbonate Dioxide Acid Ion Ion This increase of (C02) is detected by central chemoreceptors located on the surface of the medulla oblongata which are bathed in cerebrospinal fluid. Central chemoreceptors respond to changes in (H+) concentration and Partial Pressure (Pa C02) in the cerebrospinal fluid. The peripheral chemoreceptors which are sensitive to changes in PO2 are located in the aortic arch and carotid bodies, which respond to the changes in the PO2 in the blood. It only takes a minimal drop in the PO2 to stimulate these receptors which in turn send impulses back to the respiratory center via the glosspharyngeal and vagus nerve's. These groups of neurons take part in a negative feedback system that control the levels of (C02) (H+) and (02) in the blood, causing the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles to contract with greater frequency and more strength. Therefore as an increase of (C02) is detected, or a decrease in the PO2 is detected, the respiratory centre is stimulated and the rate and depth of ventilation is increased to expel (C02). ...read more.

Conclusion

and a minimal rise in body temperature as a result of increased cellular production induced by exercise. There is an increase in (HR) and alveolar ventilation maintaining a homeostatic state, thus confirming that cardiovascular and respiratory mechanisms must work in a combined fashion to support the (02) needs of exercising tissue, and to eliminate from the body the waste products that are brought about by increased cellular metabolism, namely heat and (C02) ,thus maintaining homeostasis. 6. Reference 1. Shepard R.J. & Astrand P.O (2000) Endurance in Sport. In .Wetter. T.J and Dempsey P.A (eds) Pulmonary System and Endurance Exercise. London. Blackwell Science. 52 2. Tortora and Grabowski (2003) Principles of Anatomy & Physiology 10th ed.USA John Wiley & Sons (27) 1002. 3. Tortora and Grabowski (2003) Principles of Anatomy & Physiology 10th ed.USA John Wiley & Sons (23) 834 4. Robergs. R A. & Roberts S O. (2000) Exercise Physiology for Fitness, Performance and Health. USA. The McGraw Hill Companies (7) 148 5. Vander A, Sherman J, Luciano D, (2001) Human Physiology, The Mechanisms of Body Function 8th ed. USA. The McGraw Hill Companies (14) 400 6. Tortora and Grabowski (2003) Principles of Anatomy & Physiology 10th ed.USA John Wiley & Sons (20) 685. 7. Howley E T, Turner M J. Step Tests: Description and Physiology (online) http://www.sportsci.org/index.html [accessed 02 April 2003] London. Blackwell Science 262. 8. Shepard R.J. & Astrand P.O (2000) Endurance in Sport. In Mack G W & Nadel E R. (Eds) Endurance in Hot and Cold Environments Michael A Jones 1 M/C 1ANN0002 Laboratory Report ...read more.

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