• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Exercise and Health.

Extracts from this document...


Exercise and Health: Coursework 1 Metabolic syndrome is the termed used to define a cluster of associated pathologies that stem from insulin resistance. Using relevant research literature discuss the following: i) The process by which insulin resistance develops. Insulin resistance is described as insensitivity to plasma glucose, which therefore lowers the effects of insulin (Borghouts and Keizer 2000). An important factor in the development of insulin resistance is the type of the fibre in an individual's skeletal muscle. Research has given evidence to suggest that reduced proportions of slow-twitch and oxidative fibres and increased proportions of fast twitch fibres are associated with development of insulin resistance in men and women (Lillioja et al., 1987 cited by Simoneau and Kelley 1997). Age and physical activity are both associated with insulin resistance, as they are both related with a reduction in oxidative capacity of the skeletal muscle. A lack of exercise is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and is more common with an increase in age. Although further research (Zavaroni et al., 1986 cited by Ivy 1997) found that the effect of aging was secondary to changes in body composition and a sedentary lifestyle. It is seen that the development of insulin resistance is associated with changes in the glycolytic and oxidative capacities of the skeletal muscle. ...read more.


It is seen that insulin sensitivity has a negative correlation with age, but a recent study conducted by Seals et al., (1984, cited in Borghouts and Keizer, 2000) found that endurance trained elderly subjects are more insulin sensitive than young, sedentary subjects. So although age is a discriminating factor it is therefore better to be old and physically active than to be young and inactive. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that by increasing the frequency of exercise from under once a week to just a least once a week can result in a significant decrease in the incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). From figure 1 it is evident that the greatest fall is from this initial increase in exercise and that a further increase in frequency results in a related drop in incidence, although the fall is not as large. Figure 1 Incidence rates of NIDDM in relation to frequency of vigorous exercise. This highlights that important benefits of exercise and furthermore that the increase in exercise frequency does not have to be dramatic to produce significant effects. There have also been more in-depth, cross sectional studies that have compared athletes to non-athletes. The results have shown that the trained subjects are more insulin sensitive than untrained subjects (Borghouts and Keizer 2000) ...read more.


Evidence to confirm this, was found in a recent report by Morris, Everitt, Pollard, Chave and Semmence (1980, cited in Dishman, 1994). The report was on males who had been asked to complete a detailed record of their physical activity at the weekend, which was used to classify the men into two categories, vigorous and non-vigorous exercisers. Vigorous exercise was defined as exercise at a level equal to heavy industrial work and the study showed that 20% of the participants were classified as vigorous exercisers. The men were then followed for mortality and it was found that there were 475 deaths from coronary heart disease. It concluded that the death rate was twice as high in non-vigorous exercisers than in vigorous exercisers. To conclude it can be seen from this essay that exercise is beneficial in the improvement and prevention of insulin resistance. This is essential as it has been highlighted that many associated pathologies can stem from insulin resistance. It has also been highlighted that exercise is beneficial in the treatment of these symptoms and can therefore lead to a better way of life for insulin resistance sufferers. A final point that has been discussed is that for an improvement to take place the amount of exercise does not have to be dramatic (once a week) and so anybody can do it. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Anatomy and Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Anatomy and Physiology essays

  1. Investigating the Short-Term Effects of Exercise on the Body.

    controlled to make the test as fair as possible, and the results as accurate precise as possible. 'Intensity of exercise completed' will be chosen as the main input variable, and the other three controlled (as shown in the 'Controlled' column).

  2. Temperature regulation practical - Homeostasis.

    On the other hand, the external temperature will drop because the body loses heat through sweating - the skin is wet, evaporated, and thus the skin is cooled. The external skin temperature can be measured using a strip thermometer wrapped around the forehead.

  1. Conduct the Queens Step test (provided) for all 4 students. Record the resting heart ...

    Intensity is slower to focus on the movements without injury. 6. Medley: alternating 100m laps of breaststroke, freestyle, backstroke and kickboard of medium intensity to finish of the circuit allow stress on the systems, as the body is almost at fatigue level.

  2. Personal Exercise Programme

    prevents muscle soreness 5. lowers levels of adrenaline 6. increases flexiblity Progression: This means increasing your work rate over a period of time. For example throughout my action plan I gradually increased the intensity and time of my performance and once I have compiled my data it will show I have progressively improved my fitness levels.

  1. Anti Diuretic Hormone and its role in the control of H20 in the body ...

    Osmotic control of antidiuretic hormone secretion makes perfect sense. Imagine walking across a desert: the sun is beating down and you begin to lose a considerable amount of body water through sweating. Loss of water results in concentration of blood solutes - plasma osmolarity increases. Should you increase urine production in such a situation?

  2. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Submaximal Exercise under Aerobic Conditions

    It is an initial steep rise in both (HR) and (WR) for both subjects. In subject (A),a steady state is achieved after four minutes whereas this is not achieved until eight minutes in subject (B). This could be due to a difference in individual fitness levels.

  1. Mechanics of Breathing and responses to exercise

    There are two separate neural systems that control respiration; voluntary control and automatic control. Voluntary control originates in the cerebral cortex whilst the automatic control originates in respiratory centres in the pons and medulla. The medullary neurons generate the rhythm for involuntary breathing sending impulses to the inspiratory muscles at a rate of 12-15 times per minute.

  2. Step-by-step system to gain muscle from a nutrition standpoint.

    of motion is just that -- a full range of motion followed by a half range of motion. Here�s an example using a lunge. Start in a standing position with feet staggered to the front and back. Begin by lowering down until the front knee reaches a 90 degree angle,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work