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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Analysing my lifestyle and fitness.

    This would affect my lifestyle as it having good stamina would help me with everyday tasks such as running for the bus or running to school before I am late. It would also help me aerobically as it shows that I have pretty good slow-twitch muscle fibres. It is also an indication if I am more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease or stroke. Another of my strengths was flexibility. By looking at my score which was 24 and comparing it to the national average, I can see that it is strength.

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  2. The key areas of physical fitness in football

    You also need it as you need to dodge past opposing team and even to score a goal. The goal keeper will need flexibility the most as he needs to stretch to catch the ball preventing it going in the goal. If you want to kick a ball using the right technique, flexibility is useful. You can also get injured by low flexibility as you can pull as muscle. To test your flexibility you can do the sit and reach test and to train for it you can do passive and active stretching. Speed is innate which means you are either born with or without it.

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  3. I can see that I want to improve my cardiovascular fitness. Therefore I will do a Personal Exercise Program over 6 weeks to hopefully improve this, before I do another set of tests.

    The player may need to move or stretch to reach it. Skill Related Fitness Speed This is the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time. Reaction Time This is the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. Agility This is the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body. Balance This is the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity)

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  4. Sportmanship and Gamemanship. . This essay will discuss sportsmanship, gamesmanship, fair play, ethics and values, playing by the rules and role models implicated in sport. As well as why playing the game fairly matters more

    This is an example of winning at all costs, when they will do anything to win. When their team lost a set they would use excuses such as "the other team cheated", this is another prime example of bad sportsmanship. 3. Stacked Teams In one of our classes we had substitute teachers, the students got to choose their own teams for a game of volleyball. As a result the teams were unfair or 'stacked'. A group of boys got a team together; all of them were sporty and have a lot of skill in the game.

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  5. Performance Analysis. One of the key skills in Gaelic football and one that I have watched this player perform is scoring a Point/Goal.

    she took the required amount of steps aloud which is four, she then executed her shot. When doing so she displayed that she had good balance and coordination. The player showed a wide range of motion at the hip joint when she took her shot. This portrayed to me that the performer had good range of flexibility, which had obviously been exercised to bring it to a high level, in a non trained athlete their flexibility would not have been at standard.

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  6. Health Related training exercise

    Week 2 Exercise Time Process Heart rate Cycling 15 minutes Level 11 190 Treadmill 15 minutes 6.5 mph 180 Skipping 5 minutes Skip for as long as possible for 5 minutes 190 Step Ups Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 175 Shuttle runs Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 191 Star jumps Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 186 Burpes Around about 2 minutes 5 sets of 10 reps with 30 second rest 192 Press-ups Around about 2 minutes

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  7. Pe AQA essay

    lengths 12 lengths 14 lengths 16 lengths 17 lengths Press ups 16 in a min 19 in a min 24 in a min 26 in a min 27 in a min Lay-ups 10/20 15/23 17/26 18/30 24/30 Speed jumps 41 57 62 68 76 Session Brief comments after each session 2 marks 1 I found it quite a struggle and I got tired 2 Was difficult but I could of done more 3 Could do the circuit the whole way without getting tired 4 Shortened the breaks and still achieved my best 5 Did the whole circuit with no breaks and my highest scores Session Recording: heart rate 2 marks Recording: recovery rate 2 marks 1 137 (BPM)

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  8. Logbook on Swimming

    Then your arms is also used to power your way forward, and they should be rotating around the circle clockwise (in and out of the water) and also making sure your head is close to the surface of the water so you can breathe in air easily. Merit The reason I need to use this two stroke is because if I don't use it, I cannot travel one side of the swimming pool to the other. Freestyle and Backstroke is my favourite strokes, and I use it because I'm more familiar with it and I know how it works e.g.

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  9. Football. I will now be looking at different training practises that can be used to maintain my strengths and improve my weaknesses penalty box soccerAs I have identified shooting as one of my strengths I will need a practise that will help me maintain t

    In this practise, the game starts with the keeper from one team throwing the ball to a team-mate. This is like a real match however it's played in the penalty box. The game is decided by the first goal scored. The team that scores stays on the field and the losing team are replaced by a new team. You can progress this by putting a time limit and if the score is still level after a certain time, both teams go off and are replaced. This puts both teams under more pressure and it means they try to shoot more often.

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  10. In football, the skills that are my weaknesses are: tackling, set pieces, dribbling and crossing.The fitness components that are my weaknesses are: balance, flexibility, muscular endurance and reaction time.

    My penalties, corners and free kicks are not a particular strong part of my game. I know this is a weakness because I am never picked to take any corners, free kicks or penalties. This is not too much of a problem as there are other people on the team who are better, however it means I cannot create chances for my team or score myself. My set pieces are not accurate enough meaning if I do take an occasional corner etc, I don't often pick out a teammate leading to them getting frustrated or worse, losing possession.

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  11. There are many factors that can affect sporting performances in positive and negative ways. In this section I will talk about a few of these examples which include social, physiological and psychological.

    This has a positive affect on someone's performance as they can easily get to this place and train which will help improve their performances. If a club is nearby, then it is also more likely that you stick to it as you don't have to travel a long distance to get to it. This will mean you will have more time to practise and improve in a sport as you go everyday in order to get better. By having things like football leagues nearby, it will also motivate you more as you will want to achieve more things such as wining trophies.

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  12. Compnents of Fitness

    Some examples of how to increase cardiovascular endurance are: Running, cycling and swimming. The reason why Stamina is important to my sport, and being a forward in rugby in particular is that I need it to be able to play 80 minutes of a game. I need to be able to run to each break down (I.e. A ruck, or maul) then follow on to the next breakdown. 2. Flexibility: The ability of joints to move through their full range of motion.

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  13. Sports Assignment - Basketball

    It was only in 1906 that nets, boards, and a metal hoop was introduced. That resembles what we have in modern day. The YMCA helped propagate this sport throughout the US and Canada. The first championship took place in 1897. Soon, basketball became a professional sport, with teams. The Buffalo Germans were among the first who competed in championships. The influence of the YMCA helped spread basketball further, into European countries. When the World War occurred in the 1910s, the US army brought basketball everywhere they went. This helped spread the idea of basketball worldwide.

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  14. Sport nutrient the three food groups

    Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature and are usually vegetable fats a good example of this is nuts and sunflower oil. Protein - essential to growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues. Protein is found in dairy products such as eggs and meats. Micronutrients consist of three food groups: Vitamins - are responsible for normal growth, provide proper metabolism, ensure good health and protect against certain diseases. Found in fruits such as oranges, pears and mangos. Minerals - provide structure in forming bones and teeth and help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity, and acid-base balance.

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  15. In football, the skills that are my strengths are: passing, heading, shooting and first touch.

    In attack, I also go up for corners and try to score a header at every opportunity. So far I have scored 3 headers this season and by using match analysis I can see I win an average of 10 headers per match. Headers also have a positive effect on the defensive side of my performance. I often come back to help my team defend corners and free kicks by heading the ball clear. By combining my headers with man marking, when the opposition have a set piece, I often get my head to the ball first clearing it effectively helping my team enormously.

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  16. Analysis of the lay up in basketball

    Aim to jump towards the side off the basket and at the top of your leap, roll the ball out your shooting hand. Step 4 Try and lay the ball softly on to the backboard, hit the top corner of the rectangle on your side of the basket Mechanics of the lay-up There are biomechanical movements that take place when performing the lay-up. In the preparation stage there is an important transfer of weight. You must transfer all your weight onto the front leg.

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  17. Sport leadership - planning, communicating and motivating.

    Unit 2 Communication skills include verbal, non-verbal and use of whistle. Whilst teaching a lesson it is important to communicate with pupils in an appropriate manner. When you verbally communicate you need to make sure you Phrase your words clearly and positively. Try to have a basic outline of what you are going to say, you have to think before you use your words so the student know you are well prepared and will not lose concentration. Make sure you speak in a loud voice so all students can hear as a result listen carefully to you, whilst speaking make sure you have pauses and not speaking all in one go, also do not add an "ah", "um" as the student will take advantage as they think you are nervous.

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  18. Skills of a sports leader

    Evaluation Evaluation is evaluating your sessions and deciding if your session worked well or not. If your session did not work well you will have to make changes. A leader who is good at evaluating is Alex Ferguson, he evaluates his session because he wants his team to be the best and to improve. Evaluating his session allows him to focus on the things that need improving in his session. A PE teacher will also evaluate her session to see whether it ran smoothly and what changes could be made to the session. Managing a group Managing a group is adapting to work with different numbers of people in your session.

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  19. P.E.P- Push Pass Hockey

    When I was 11 I started playing hockey for school. And by the age of 12-13 I was playing for York and Selby district and North Yorkshire u 14's. Then from the age of 14 I played for City Of York Hockey Club, and I also played for North Yorkshire, for the 2nd year running, and I play tennis for the school team and have done for the past 3 years. I do about 2 hours or PE a week and at least 1 hour of sports studies, In the winter I play hockey for school, 1hour 30minuets training once a week and at least one match a week.

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  20. Planning, Performing and Evaluating a Five Week Personal Training Schedule - (From Intro to Pre-Testing)

    Fitness is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, free from illness and injury. There are two different types of fitness: health related and skill related. The health related components of fitness are: * Cardiovascular Fitness: the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time. This is important in rounders for when running between the bases for the whole game, and covering large areas of the field as a fielder. * Muscular Endurance: the ability to use the muscles which are attached to the bones, many times without getting tired. This is important in rounders to prevent muscle strains and aches.

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  21. sport injuries

    The most common treatments for a hamstring strain is to use R.I.C.E which is Rest Ice Compress and Elevate. Stop playing the sport that you are participating in to ensure that the hamstring muscle doesn't diterate any more then it is already. If the Hamstring Muscle doesn't get any better go and See a sports injury specialist To prevent any further hamstring muscle strains ensure that you warm up correctly. Stretch before and after exercise. Also do various stretches that involve stretching the hamstring muscle to ensure that the muscle is stronger then it previously was and to ensure that a hamstring strain is a minimum risk for you to participate in sport.

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  22. Fitness Profile

    / E = Excellent : Worst Three : Best Three My best three fitness tests are 'Shuttle Run', 'Stork Stand' and 'Standing long jump'. Reasons why these three tests are the best are that because I have good balance, I could stand for 10 minutes for 'Stork Stand'. To do this test well, you have to stand well-balanced, which is to stand on your right foot if you use right foot and you use left foot if you use left foot usually.

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  23. personal exercise plan

    One of my aims is to improve my muscular strength. Improving my muscular strength in football will help me be stronger on the ball, win more tackles and be strong passing the ball. Improving my muscular strength will directly improve my game in the way it is played professionally. To improve my muscular strength I will use circuit training and continuous training. To be a good footballer you must be able to run up and down the football pitch, so one of my aims is cardiovascular endurance, my position involves running back to help defence and also running forward to

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  24. gym level 1

    Place your feet against the leg press. Keep them about shoulder width apart and flat on the press. Hold the handles on any leg press machine that provides them. They will give you added support as you move the weight during the exercise. Tighten your abdominal muscles during and in between each repetition. This will increase the effectiveness of your workout, as well as help to work on your core (your abdominal muscles). More importantly, keeping a tight abdomen helps to prevent lower back injuries. Take a breath in as you prepare to press the weight.

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  25. Analysing Performance Breaststroke

    Health related fitness:- * Cardiovascular endurance Good stamina/Endurance is needed for long continued periods of high performance swimming. * Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance will be needed so you are able to perform repeated contractions at near or maximum level for an extended period of time; such as continuing at the same speed and performance in every length. * Muscular strength Muscular strength will be needed so you are able to put the maximum power into a single stroke. Skill related fitness:- * Speed Speed is a born ability however speed is needed for the ability to swim quickly.

    • Word count: 1452

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare the fitness requirements of three public services.

    "To conclude my analysis of the fire services physical fitness test has featured all the main tests used by the fire service and tried to explain why they have been chosen. The number of job related tests are considerable when compared to other public services I have investigated. With this in mind I feel that, although the tasks in the training period are well thought and structured, there should be some sort of physical tests done by all fire fighters to constantly evaluate their fitness levels. My recommendation would be to have these tests once a year and fire fighters who fail to meet the standard would complete the probationary training period again to prove their motivation and commitment to the important role they play in the public service industry."

  • The Shows in the Coliseum Were Blood Thirst but Noble Contests. To What Extent is this a fair description of Gladiatorial Fights?

    "Gladiatorial shows, were often accompanied by souvenirs and the like, which in my opinion degrades Gladiators from noble sportsmen, to lifeless entertainers. This paired with the fact that they were often hired as entertainment at a dinner party, takes away the nobility. Also taking away from the nobleness is that there were non-related, less noble activities associated with, and inspired by Gladiatorial fights, gambling and prostitution to name but two. Gladiatorial shows were often considered by the emperor as a political weapon to manipulate the people, which is a shame. To conclude by today's standards the shows do seem extremely blood thirsty and due to this not noble. However in Rome, Blood and nobility were not necessarily contradictions, the Gladiatorial shows were certainly not as bloodthirsty as certain other forms of Roman entertainment, e.g. the midday executions. The fights themselves as a formal sport seem quite noble, but when looked at from the perspective of cult entertainment the nobility is lessened. In the gladiator fights the main focus was on skill and not blood. Although death was of course a possibility, the likelihood is that the majority of the time a good gladiator would live to die another day."

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