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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe the fitness requirements of three contrasting sports

    5 star(s)

    Muscular Endurance - Is needed so that a boxer can fight strongly for the whole twelve rounds. Skill related fitness components 1. Agility - Is needed to change direction, bobbing & weaving and switching fists. 2. Balance - Is needed when dodging and punching. 3. Reaction Time - Is needed to dodge and incoming punch and good reaction time is needed if there is an opening for a decent punch. 4. Power - Is needed for combinations, fast punching power.

    • Word count: 2580
  2. Analysing and improving task for rugby

    In my past two seasons, I have been playing in a very high quality team, losing to just one opposition in each of the years. There are main reason why I have chosen rugby, is because it by far and away, my favourite sport. This is down to numerous reasons, one of which being the pure joy you get from winning and the satisfaction that comes with it. This is the goal though, to win, and everything that must be done to achieve it is also a huge factor in the enjoyment of the sport.

    • Word count: 2499
  3. PEP and performance analysis for rounders

    out hitting them or going around them to far (if this happens it will affect you because it means your will have to run further out making your time slower because of the larger distance you will have to run.) In Rounders when playing in a fielding position you need to have the ability to both catch and throw a ball in order to either get batter out or stop them from scoring the maximum points. The .reason you need to have the capabilities to catch is to catch someone out if they hit a high ball, this requires good co-ordination.

    • Word count: 2224
  4. Personal Excersize Program

    Awareness of safety aspects. Outline any potential risks with any apparatus/equipment. What factors will you need to consider when planning the order/types of exercises? Explain how and why you will prepare your body for exercise/and help it to recover afterwards. 5 marks To avoid any injuries, when entering a gym/fitness room you must make sure firstly you have all the appropriate equipment for any type of exercise you will be doing for example using ice skates to run on a treadmill would be much more likely to cause injury and would affect the persons performance than to wear light, comfy trainers.

    • Word count: 2031
  5. Personal Exercise Program

    The faster the reaction time of a player, the faster the player can react on and off the ball. For example, making a tackle at the right time, or shooting first time. Power: power is needed to pass/strike the ball over long distances and also for one to have a starting force to launch a sprint. Power is speed x strength, the skill to apply maximum muscular contraction immediately in an explosive burst of movements. Balance: this is the skill to maintain a body position in a stationary or moving manner.

    • Word count: 2108
  6. User Guide-Database

    For some data, a dropdown box is used (such as Title in the Customers Form). To enter data into these, click on the blue arrow at the right hand side of the dropdown box, and click on the option that you want from the list that appears. This works in the same way with the Books Form, which you would open if you wanted to add a new book to the database. Amending Data Say a customer moves home, which is a common occurrence. Several details about them will change, such as their telephone number, their address and their postcode.

    • Word count: 2020
  7. What tools make the perfect coach?

    Coaching is identified as being the process "of importing techniques, skills knowledge and attitudes which are aimed at improving an individuals performance", (adapted from the NCVQ definition of coaching). The role of coaches has been recognised as being able to motivate performers, develop the performer physically, psychologically, and socially. Also seen in many journals, books etc.. It's put forwards that it's the role of the coach to be, the friend, to be the administrator, to be the scientist, to be the people person, and so forth, which there can be no denying that many of these jobs lie with the coach; they must be the friend and the teacher.

    • Word count: 2278
  8. P.E coursework Personal exercise programme (PEP)

    Flexibility: The sit and reach test, The Sit and Reach Test is conducted as follows: * The starting position is sitting on the floor with shoes removed, feet flat against the table, and legs straight * Reach forward and push the fingers along the table as far as possible * The distance from the finger tips to the edge of the table represents the score for that person * As the 'sit and reach' table has an overhang of 15 cm, a person who reaches 10 cm past their toes scores 25 cm * It is important to have several warm-up attempts first, and to record the best score (http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/sitreach.htm)

    • Word count: 2484
  9. Sprint Training Plan

    At school I do 3 hours of PE, which involves sports such as: hockey, netball, basketball, badminton, athletics, volleyball, trampolining and rounders. In the beginning of each school year I also have netball practice for 1 hour a week, and sometimes we have matches which, are probably about an hour overall. Every evening I try to do aerobic exercises, which include exercises that work out my abdominals, quads/gastronemius, biceps/triceps, gluteals and trapezius/deltoid. Targets * Quicker starts, (improve reaction time). * Improve endurance, so can last at top speed throughout the race. * Increase speed, so I can get quicker times.

    • Word count: 2275
  10. P.E - analysis of preformance

    Also her arms are the right length apart and not too close to her face which will give her more power whilst swimming. Eleanor also uses a bent arm pull, and does not have a straight arm recovery. This means she has a good knowledge of the sport and her body will not roll and there will be no resistance on entry with the water. She has got very good stamina and so she will be able to keep a fast but constant speed whilst she is swimming.

    • Word count: 2376
  11. pe coursework

    You need agility in badminton to be able to adjust your body from one position to another in order to hit the shuttlecock. Another crucial factor is the speed of reaction. In order to be good at singles badminton you must have a good reaction time. Which is the time it takes for example to get to a shuttlecock and hit it back. Also movement time is necessary a good one. Which is the time taken between the initiation of a response and the completion of the movement.

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  12. Btec 6 Week Training Program

    In the warm up I will do 5 minutes stretching 5 minutes jogging and 10 minute activity such as passing to improve my passing ability. My main activity that day will be a cooper run to test and improve my cardiovascular endurance this will take about 12 minute and 1 lap will equal 100m after I have done that I will still have some time left so I will practice my passing for 10 minutes and then do a warm down the warm down will be 5minutues jogging and 5 minutes stretching and that will be the end of my day ant my first week.

    • Word count: 2364
  13. History of badminton and P.E.P

    In the 17th century, Battledore or Jeu de Volant was an upper class pastime in many European countries. Versions of the game had been played for centuries by children in the Far East, and were adapted by British Army officers stationed in Pune (or Poona), India in the 1860s. They added a net and the game became a competitive sport called "poona", with documented rules in 1867. In 1873 the sport made its way back to England and gained its current title after guests at a Badminton House lawn party held by the Duke of Beaufort introduced it to their friends as "the Badminton game".

    • Word count: 2232
  14. positive and negative influences on participation

    School education encourages young people to take up active recreations and sports. Education shapes our sporting views by making children want to take part in physical activities when they grow up because they took part in physical education in school. After school when you have passed 16, you might want to go onto college or university. Then you might go onto find a huge array of clubs and societies available that allow them to continue with those activities they already enjoy or perhaps even try some new ones. The types of school you go to influences your sports choices and often standard because if you go to a school with loads of

    • Word count: 2505
  15. My Personal Exercise Plan

    Pace covers a similar area. With improved pace, both attacking and defending becomes much easier. Chasing down attackers and putting them under pressure or tackling them is a vital ability to have, and better speed means an improved ability to do so. In attack, it makes it easier to get past defenders when dribbling or receiving a pass behind the backline. Analysis I play right full-back. To help me compare and also to have a level to aim for, I have looked at Gareth Bale of Southampton FC.

    • Word count: 2578
  16. Preparation for Sport

    Power is often referred to as fast strength. It is also combination of strength and speed. The stronger and faster the bowl is, the harder they make it for the opposition. Power would also be needed when batting, if the batsman has a fast ball coming towards him he will need as much power as possible to hit the ball as far as possible. The last component I think that would be needed is flexibility. Flexibility is the amount or range of movement that you can have around a joint.

    • Word count: 2047
  17. AQA Physical Education Coursework

    2 marks Exercise Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session 4 Session 5 Ladder lengths (7 strides in a ladder length- 30 seconds) Target: 6 Achieved: 6 How I felt: good Target: 6.5 Achieved: 6.5 How I felt: exhausted Target: 7 Achieved: 7 How I felt: tired Target: 7.5 Achieved: 7.5 How I felt: good Target: 8 Achieved: 7.5 How I felt: good Cone lengths (8 strides in a length of cones passing between them in a zigzag motion. 30 seconds Target: 6 Achieved: 6.5 How I felt: tired Target: 6.5 Achieved: 7 How I felt: exhausted Target: 7 Achieved:

    • Word count: 2508
  18. PE Analysis Coursework

    We also look at more different characteristics, these include: Back row moves, Strike moves, line outs and scrum downs. Over the past year I have got to know more and more about the game of rugby. As I am not a rugby player, this helped a lot, as I was more aware of the rules and the plays of the game. Firstly, I will be analysing my partner Lucas on his skill and technique of passing a rugby ball and identifying his strengths and weaknesses.

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  19. Strengths and weaknesses

    The overall efficiency of the stroke is smooth and fluent, I know this because my coach informs me that I don't make any rapid splashes. My arm action entering the water is fully stretched, and during the arm pull through my elbows are high at a right angle. Butterfly is a difficult stroke to swim as it needs both stamina and style, but because I train more on this stroke I find it easier. I know that butterfly is one of the best strengths in my performance because I have had feedback from my video analysis.

    • Word count: 2355
  20. PE Coursework - Sailing

    Strength - upper body and torso strength is needed in sailing. Upper body strength to control the sails and torso strength for leaning out to keep the boat balanced. Agility - some agility is needed in order to duck the boom during gybing. Balance - balance is needed mainly to move around the boat when it's moored but some is needed during gybing and going about. Timing - timing is needed when going about or gybing around a buoy. If you turn too soon then you collide with the buoy and loose speed you turn too late you give opponents the chance to slip in front of you and give you their bad wind.

    • Word count: 2552
  21. P.E Coursework

    My number of laps was 27 which means that I did 2700 metres of running. Harvard step test - this is where you put one foot on a bench followed by another then take one foot off and take the other foot off. My pulse rates were: * Before exercise - 64 * 1 min - 116 * 2 mins - 76 * 3 mins - 64 Compared to the other people that are in my group I am a very fit person.

    • Word count: 2604
  22. PEP My aim is to undertake a 6 week exercise programme to improve my sprinting speed

    As better flexibility helps for longer strides and therefore longer strides mean a faster pace. I do not expect my flexibility to go up dramatically as my exercises aren't focused on this aspect of fitness. Strength and power: are the main aspects I will need to improve. Both of these are quite strong for me but to get a faster sprinting speed I will need to improve them further and I expect a positive increase by the end of my 6 weeks which is why most of my exercises will be focused upon this aspect of fitness.

    • Word count: 2618
  23. Personal Exercise Program - Orienteering

    I do 20 minutes of jogging each day, mainly for aesthetic development and weight loss. On Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, I go out running to keep my stamina at its peak. However, I shall need to increase this with my 6 week exercise program, so I can apply each training principle, and allow my respiratory system to develop to alleviate the stress and increase my training thresholds in my orienteering. I do not practise this in competitive settings, though I have an understanding of basic rules and concepts, and often practise continuous training to increase my fitness.

    • Word count: 2201
  24. Officiating in sport

    My role is to analyse Chris' skills in officiating whilst the PE teacher filmed the session. The other students will then watch the taped sessions back in the classroom after they have refereed a match and we will then all be asked to judge each person on their individual strengths and weaknesses. Part A - Audit Strengths and Weakness' Ability to deal under pressure The role of the referee is to control the game using the skills that are available to him. During the first game, Chris was asked to be the referee. Although obviously feeling quite anxious about his role, Chris stood up to the task admirably.

    • Word count: 2839

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare the fitness requirements of three public services.

    "To conclude my analysis of the fire services physical fitness test has featured all the main tests used by the fire service and tried to explain why they have been chosen. The number of job related tests are considerable when compared to other public services I have investigated. With this in mind I feel that, although the tasks in the training period are well thought and structured, there should be some sort of physical tests done by all fire fighters to constantly evaluate their fitness levels. My recommendation would be to have these tests once a year and fire fighters who fail to meet the standard would complete the probationary training period again to prove their motivation and commitment to the important role they play in the public service industry."

  • The Shows in the Coliseum Were Blood Thirst but Noble Contests. To What Extent is this a fair description of Gladiatorial Fights?

    "Gladiatorial shows, were often accompanied by souvenirs and the like, which in my opinion degrades Gladiators from noble sportsmen, to lifeless entertainers. This paired with the fact that they were often hired as entertainment at a dinner party, takes away the nobility. Also taking away from the nobleness is that there were non-related, less noble activities associated with, and inspired by Gladiatorial fights, gambling and prostitution to name but two. Gladiatorial shows were often considered by the emperor as a political weapon to manipulate the people, which is a shame. To conclude by today's standards the shows do seem extremely blood thirsty and due to this not noble. However in Rome, Blood and nobility were not necessarily contradictions, the Gladiatorial shows were certainly not as bloodthirsty as certain other forms of Roman entertainment, e.g. the midday executions. The fights themselves as a formal sport seem quite noble, but when looked at from the perspective of cult entertainment the nobility is lessened. In the gladiator fights the main focus was on skill and not blood. Although death was of course a possibility, the likelihood is that the majority of the time a good gladiator would live to die another day."

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