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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. 4-Week Training Program

    All of us are doing exercises which will help us with basketball which means the exercises are similar. this means that the same station will be used by different people. To avoid the problem of too many people being on the same station at the same time I will attempt to co-operate with my colleagues in order carry out all the exercises within the 1 hour time limit that I have once a week. Since there a lot of exercises which require the same muscle groups to be used, I will have a certain order which will help me balance out the amount of time I use each muscle without resting it.

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  2. GCSE PE Personal Fitness Programme.

    Muscular strength is also useful when taking a throw-in, good muscular strength in the abdominal muscles is required to throw the ball higher and further to reach a player that is a long distance away from the touch-line. � Speed - the ability to perform a movement in a short period of time. This is essential in football, for example to be able to sprint after a through ball or tackle an opponent who is through on goal. � Agility - the ability to change direction quickly and control movements of the whole body.

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  3. Health & Fitness.

    The first principle is specificity and says that training should be relevant to what the person needs for example, a Rugby player doing cardiovascular and muscular endurance work is relevant to the game. Specificity in terms of the public services is quite important because fitness is required in all the uniformed services. In the Army cardiovascular endurance would be trained, as soldiers may be required to walk for long periods in order to get to a particular location. (Honeybourne, 2003, p107)

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  4. Personal exercise programme.

    These activities are not exceedingly challenging but help to keep my general fitness good. I hope to soon start to go jogging after school for about 20 minutes after I have moved house, as the area I am moving to has a short circuit suitable for jogging around. I hope to jog this circuit at least 3 times a week and record the time it takes me to jog the circuit and to see how well I can improve. I hope to do this to improve my stamina and endurance and help to keep my heart pumping sufficient levels of oxygen to my muscles to keep my going throughout the jog.

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  5. The Golfers Training Programme.

    He earned $9,188,321 on the PGA TOUR and broke the PGA TOUR record of $6,616,585 that he set in 1999. In 2000, Woods matched the record of Ben Hogan in 1953 in winning three professional major championships in the same year. Hogan won the Masters, U.S. Open and British Open. In winning the British Open, Woods became the youngest to complete the career Grand Slam of professional major championships and only the fifth ever to do so. Tiger also was the youngest Masters champion ever, at the age of 21 years.

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  6. Personal exercise plan.

    I am intending to fit in my four other varied PEP sessions around my non-PEP activities. I have to do this carefully taking into account the necessary principles of training. These principles are: - Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Individual needs, Systematic & Metabolic (SPORISM). - Frequency, Intensity, Type & Time (FITT). If I get any of these principles wrong I could end up with a serious injury by doing too much work (Overload) or on the other end of the spectrum not progressing by not doing enough training (Reversibility). Taking FITT into account I felt four sessions is enough to benefit me fully but also not enough so that I will be physically drained and tired, therefore unfit to continue with the programme.

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  7. Devise and undertake a 6-week training program to see if I can improve my cardiovascular system.

    We keep going until we can no-longer keep up with the pace set by the beeps. At this point we stop and record the level. We can check our score with published tables and so work out our VO2 max. The test is easy to use and motivating, particularly when done with a group of people. It is the most widely used of all fitness tests. My training program: Day Training type Monday 1 1/2 hour varied pace swimming session Wednesday 1 hour long slow continuous XC cycle ride Friday 1/2 hour long slow continuous XC running Saturday 4 hour varied pace XC cycle ride Training types chosen: Varied pace: varying between sprinting and long distance

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  8. Training program for the 400m.

    However a slight hint of agility is necessary to be able to develop the optimum running style round bends etc. Balance Balance is again not very important in the 400m, obviously you will have to be able to stand up, but you will not need to be able to do handstands or front flips, so just as long as you can run without falling over you will not need to work on balance Flexibility This is the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e.

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  9. Football Training Programme.

    If I had improved on my own ability, generally I would be much fitter then I was previously. My body type is more suited to playing football, rather then a sport like gymnastics because I am taller. I tend to fit into the mesomorph category and a little on the ectomorph. The potential risks involved in carrying out this circuit training programme are injury issues. This can be caused by many factors such as: injury to muscles by inflexible muscles. This can also be caused by not warming up/stretching or warming down (which I will explain later). Injuries can also be caused from lack of health and safety aspects.

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  10. What can I do to increase my stamina when it comes to running, anything more than 10 minutes is totally exhausting even though I am fit for swimming and cycling?

    This movement is the pull phase of the stride, which indoors is provided by the treadmill belt. For these reasons, if you are training for an outdoor event then some training must be completed outside. How do I choose the correct trainers for running? - There are so many! Without having your gait (the way that you walk/run) assessed it is very difficult to tell which trainers to go for. Good running shops will have staff who are trained to assess gait and then advise on training shoes but this is an inferior solution to seeing a Podiatrist.

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  11. Analysing Performance Sport: Kayaking

    There are many different principles that can be used in developing a training program, each exercise recognise each of these and address each as nessesscery. * Overload Training is to making your body work harder than it is known to easily, this will cause your fitness to improve. * Specificity is that all training must be targeted at skills and components of fitness specific to the activity or sport. * Progression is that all training must steadily progress from simple training to the desired level.

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  12. P.E. coursework.

    I am very susceptible to back problems and need to be careful not to exert any unnecessary pressure. To prevent this happening I need to make sure that I warm up properly. Fitness components For me to become successful at my sport I will need to have three main components; speed, as I need to be able to move around the court quickly. Flexibility because I need to be supple in order to reach certain shots. For me the most important one is stamina as I play badminton often and need to be able to last the whole game.

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  13. The Sport I would like to improve is The Javelin.

    Can use weight training equipment properly 2. Warming Up/Cooling Down 3. Stretching and flexibility work 4. Use of muscle groups 5. Eating and drinking patterns 6. Tramp leaning Improvements Noted ? Can now lift for 2 seconds and lower for 4 sec ? Breathing at different stages of exercise ? I don't get so tired ? Do not bounce during stretching ? Hold the stretch longer ? PNF ? Improved range of movements ? Better prepared - better performance generally ? Not sore the next day ? Learnt a variety of techniques to change emphasis - more interesting ?

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  14. Shoulder Injuries in Competitive Swimming.

    As the tissues become inflamed the narrow space between becomes tight worsening the impingement. Depending on how many yards per training session, the number of impingement positions will vary with the number of strokes and type of stroke the swimmer completes. The freestyle stroke consists of pull through phase while the arm is in the water, which provides propulsion, and a recovery phase in which the arm is above the water. In this stroke, which most swimmers use for the majority of training, the shoulder is subject to impingement during the early to mid pull-through phase.

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  15. Personal Exercise Programme.

    Teamwork is something that most sports require. Every sport that I have done requires me to be involved in teamwork. Badminton is the only sport that I have played that doesn't require as much teamwork as the other sports apart from when it is doubles. Harvinder Singh Chana Page 3 My aims for this Personal Exercise Programme are mainly to improve my cardiovascular fitness. The types of training that I would do to improve my cardiovascular fitness would be continuous training.

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  16. What evidence is there to support the idea that exercise can add ‘Life to years’ (Department of health, 1993) by improving the quality of life?

    self-esteem, extrovert, introvert has been found to influence quality of life by researchers such as Diener and Lucas, 1999. There are sociodemographic factors for example age and class that have been discovered to influence quality of life. The main researcher in this field is Argyle, 1999. Context or situational factors for instance emotional state have been revealed by Morris, 1999. Finally, Oishi et al, 1999, exposed subjective factors that influence quality of life such as personal assessment or associates influence. This is why it is so hard to validate the results of any investigation when working with quality of life.

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  17. My personal exercise programme (P.E.P) is on football and I am focusing on my position of centre back.

    Circuit training is a method of training. A circuit usually has 8 to 15 stations, where at each station a different exercise is carried out for a certain amount of time. Circuit training can improve muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and agility. A circuit-training program may also be designed for a certain sport. Circuits for this purpose will include exercises to improve all the muscles and skills associated with the sport. Example: A circuit training program for basketball should include skills like jumping, catching and throwing.

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  18. My Personal Exercise Programme.

    Reasons for this warm up are as follows: 1. To prevent injury 2. To improve performance 3. To prepare psychologically for the event and 4. To increase my heart rate gently. A warm up should provide a smooth transition from rest to the intensity of the main activity or competitive situation. After my circuit training I will do a Cool-down. A cool-down gradually returns the body to its normal temperature and the working pulse rate to the resting pulse rate.

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  19. The Use Of Circuit Training To Improve Performance in Basketball and Badminton.

    Long: Unable to trouble opponent and set them up for an easy return Weak and unable to reach the back of the court Grip on racket too tight and so didn't get all he could out of the shot Very bad players got in each others way and sometimes they got confused and left shots Didn't attempt to move around the court and left an obvious gap in the centre of the court Short: Observation of basketball game Fitness Lay up Passing Shooting Dribbling Defence Movement Strengths Good ability to keep up with pace of game Very accurate scored 3 from 4 attempts Accurate at close distances.

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  20. PPP Action Plan

    I find I am not so good at controlling the ball from a long pass and accuracy when shooting. I think that my overall fitness level could be increased too. In terms of fitness: I feel that I have a lower level of cardiovascular endurance, and find it hard to keep going throughout the entire game. In terms of tactics/strategies: I feel I could improve in this area because I am still quite new to the game. I want to improve my tactics and have a more kinaesthetic feeling of the big picture. This will help me 'read the game' and outwit opposing players.

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  21. The two main areas of my Personal Exercise Plan are Health Related Fitness and Skill Related Fitness.

    the difference between indirect and a direct free-kick etc. and also I play for a Sunday club. Cardiovascular training will improve my power and stamina when I kick a football and play the game generally. Interval training will improve my speed and reflexes on and off the ball. My resting heart rate is 64 bpm and my bleep test score (which I aim to beat through training in my Personal Exercise Plan when I get back to school) is 10.0. Detailed Six-Week Plan For my Circuit Training I will do 5 minutes of exercise overall each day.

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  22. I have designed a circuit training programme to test my level of fitness. A circuit training programme is a method of training, which consists of 8 - 15 stations. Each of these stations will have different exercises all held for a certain amount of time.

    For example pushing, lifting, or throwing the ball very quickly. * Coordination - When you can move your body precisely and smoothly to respond to something. * Speed - The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time. The skills above will all be placed in my training circuit, as they are all needed whilst playing Basketball. However to see if my level of fitness really has improved over the six week period, I will have to check my level of fitness before the circuit training programme begins. As a result I have had to run around the Mooga (a tennis court) 17 times in 12 minutes.

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  23. I am a very keen sportsman who takes part in a whole range of sporting activity. At school I have participated in the school football team, captained the cricket team, done climbing, basketball and badminton.

    Devising a training plan to get the correct techniques and skill to improve will do this. AIMS My specific aims of this investigation are to show improvement in the game of tennis this will be done by taking a pre-test to show how good I am at the sport. Then I will devise a training plan, which I will stick to for 4 weeks and do it 3 times a week. After this I will take a post-test to show how much I have improved since I first started the programme. Finally I will analyse what I have done and evaluate what could have gone better.

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  24. Skills and techniques required for Badminton.

    Components of fitness and skill-related fitness required in chosen sport Although some people may not consider badminton to be a physically demanding sport, the demands on your body can be quite extensive. And it is for that reason which I think it is important that badminton players have good cardiovascular endurance; which is usually obtained from long-term endurance training, and depends on the capacity of the heart and circulatory system to meet the demands of the body for a sustained period of activity.

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  25. For the beginning of my action plan it will contain a less intense workout, this is because gradually the intensity will become harder. Every two weeks I shall devise a drill to test my improvement of my power.

    Then keeping your back in contact with the ground place one leg over and stretch. Each for 15 secs. Jogging 30 seconds This is more of a pre season training season but a slow work out to get you starter. Aim: The aim for this week is to be able to improve on the distance ran in the first day to the last. Day 1 Pick a route ideally on grass with hills. If you train with a group of friends then you can all choose your own fartlek route. That way you will not be covering the same ground.

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