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GCSE: Exercise and Training
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What to think about when planning a warm up activity
- 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
- 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
- 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
- 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
- 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.
Why are warm ups important?
- 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
- 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
- 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
- 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
- 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).
Flexibility as part of a warm up
- 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
- 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
- 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
- 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
- 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.
A disadvantage is that it's hard to keep going. An example of Interval training: 10 x 100m sprints with a 300m jog between each sprint. Fitness requirements a footballer needs to have: o Aerobic Fitness o Anaerobic Fitness o Speed o Agility Aerobic Fitness Aerobic fitness refers to endurance, or the ability to sustain work for prolonged periods. This is usually experienced in the abilities to walk, run, climb uphill, swim, etc. The term aerobic implies that the oxygen necessary to achieve the work is taken up by the individual during the activity.
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All of us are doing exercises which will help us with basketball which means the exercises are similar. this means that the same station will be used by different people. To avoid the problem of too many people being on the same station at the same time I will attempt to co-operate with my colleagues in order carry out all the exercises within the 1 hour time limit that I have once a week. Since there a lot of exercises which require the same muscle groups to be used, I will have a certain order which will help me balance out the amount of time I use each muscle without resting it.
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Limb speed and body speed refer to different types of speed. Limb speed being the speed of individual limbs, and body speed being the ability to move the whole body at speed (sprinting). Throughout this programme, the meaning of 'speed' refers to body speed (sprinting). A fullback in rugby union requires speed, in order to outrun opponents and chase back to make tackles. Also, to successfully pursue offensive kicks when attacking. Flexibility - the range of movement around a joint. In rugby union, a fullback requires flexibility so that he/she does not suffer injury when being tackled.
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The following table shows the resting heart rate and the recovery time for all the pre-tests, I took. Pre-test Name of Test Time in minutes Amount of repetitions Recovery rate VO2 Max / cooper (stamina) (12 minutes) 4 and a half laps 5 minutes and 35 seconds Press ups (strength) (1 minute) 23 4 minutes and 20 seconds Sit and reach (flexibility) 5 cm 4 minutes 50m test (speed) 9.5 second 4 minute and 31 second Safety elements While I am doing the circuit training, I will make sure that I consider the safety elements that are.... * The area I am playing must be clean from rubbish around which can prevent hazard.
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So it sounds like experiencing overload has very little advantages. However, a true athlete will be able to see beyond their present discomforts and understand that it will benefit them greatly in the long run. Progressive overload is key to improving. It is placing stress upon the body for a specified amount of time and usually involves high intensity work done on a very regular basis. To phrase it differently, progressive overload is "over training". However, in the case of progressive overload, it is controlled. After any overload period, there is a rest period.
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It is important to know what they are and the effects they will have. The main four principles of training are: specificity, overload, progression, and reversibility. All training requires a combination all these factors to be successful and lead to an improvement. The principles of specificity Every exercise has a specific effect on specific muscles. The principles of overload To make a body part fitter, you must overload it, or make it work harder than usual. Over time it adapts to the increased demand by getting fitter. The principles of progression The body can't adapt overnight to increased demands.
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Agility The ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of your body. Balance The ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base o support with the reference of static-stationary- or dynamic- changing-condition of movement, shape and orientation Reaction time The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. Ab plank This is a test for muscular endurance. This type of training works the abdominal muscles. The reason this training is good for cricket is that you need to have a good posture (body composition)
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= Left foot = Right foot During the programme I will be using all of the above different ways each week. They are all used more than once. Station 2: Tricep-Dips- On this you also have 1 minute to complete as many dips as you can. To complete this station you put your hands on a bench with your legs bent out in front of you. Like this- For the tricep-dips your feet will have to be apart and positioned under your knees.
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Muscular strength is also useful when taking a throw-in, good muscular strength in the abdominal muscles is required to throw the ball higher and further to reach a player that is a long distance away from the touch-line. � Speed - the ability to perform a movement in a short period of time. This is essential in football, for example to be able to sprint after a through ball or tackle an opponent who is through on goal. � Agility - the ability to change direction quickly and control movements of the whole body.
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I must insure that I work hard for the full session and push myself to the max in order to achieve my goal of getting a good cardiovascular work out in order to improve my endurance. I will progress in my next training session by working on each station for longer- adding on 10 seconds on to each station- and if I get tired give myself a 20 second recovery period. I will keep the training circuit the same however and see how I get in and see if any improvements need to be done after I have done this.
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This is one of the key components of fitness that I'm going to be concentrating on because it's the thing I feel I mostly need to improve on and its a good one to do as you can make amendments in order to improve over time. Muscular endurance is also key for football, as you require a lot of strength in the muscles throughout playing as lots of pressure goes on the muscles to perform and deal with the different situations of the game.
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I will test my current fitness by doing all my tasks at the start of the program then i will test my self at the end of my program to see if my training has improved my fitness. I will put my test results into a graph to see the results more clearly, you will be able to see what i have improved at and what i have decreased at. I will link all my tasks to health related components to make sure that i improve every thing in football and not just what i need to improve, i will want to improve more than just i have wanted i will hopefully improve at everything.
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I will need to use the power efficiently. Component Fitness Test Result Compared with national results Muscular Endurance Ab-bleep test level 7 good Dynamic Strength 1 and 3/4 mile run 9:06 mins good Power Vertical jump 46 cm good/excellent I have chosen to take the ab-bleep again to try and improve the overall level of the sit ups. My prediction is that if I do stick strictly to my exercise plan I will be able to move on to level 9 or 10. As I excel in the training my overall fitness will improve including my technique and skill.
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Design an outdoor recreation programme for an adult team building day from a local company perspective. Critically evaluate the programme design and its intended outcomes and discuss the theoretical processes used to achieve and maximise these outcomes.
The emotions, the physical demands will guide the person to a different understanding of work ethic. The activities on the day are specifically designed to help participants to gain a greater understanding of Motivation, communication, creativity, competitiveness, team building, trust, decision making, problem solving, individuality, appreciation etc. Objective The objective of this teambuilding day is that all the things learnt can be then adapted to working environment and the real life situations. At the end, the person should feel that they have self progressed and have a greater understanding of self and there importance in a team.
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If a midfielder was fully fit and had a good game they would cover approximately 6400 metres in the first half and 6000 metres in the second half. 28% of this would be walking and 26% would be sprinting, the rest would be jogging at a range of different paces. This is because a central midfielder needs to sit behind the forwards to support them when their team is attacking but also needs to sit infront of the defense and try and regain the ball when their team is defending.
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Explain in more detail what aspects of fitness I need and why I need them to be excellent to perform at my best.
Furthermore, speed helps when attempting to get past an opponent with the ball because when a skill is executed, acceleration is needed to then get away from the opponent. Co-ordination - Co-ordination is an obvious important factor when playing football because to kick the ball correctly, good co-ordination is needed. If swerve is going to be put on the ball, the foot must make contact with it in a very specific area. If co-ordination is not at its best then this would be very difficult.
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There are of course no restrictions in position for football, a defensive player can move forward at will, though sometimes neglecting their defensive duties can prove costly, this is less of an issue in netball, where the positions are less disciplined as the space you can move between is restricted. There are times when the players will be caught out of position, but far less frequently then in football, where more and more, with the progression of the modern game, players are often asked to increase their workload more and more.
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* blood pressure * muscle function * shoulder abduction * aerobic fitness Levels of physical activity were calculated based on a combination of duration, frequency and intensity (with activities and sports assigned an intensity rating of light, moderate and vigorous) and presented on an 'activity level scale'. The scale was related to optimum targets from deriving a health benefit and the proportion of the population in different groups falling below these target levels was identified. This survey provided us with the following two statements; "80% of adults perceive themselves to be physically active" "> 30% of men and 60% of women cannot maintain a walking speed of 3mph when walking up a moderate (5%)
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The first principle is specificity and says that training should be relevant to what the person needs for example, a Rugby player doing cardiovascular and muscular endurance work is relevant to the game. Specificity in terms of the public services is quite important because fitness is required in all the uniformed services. In the Army cardiovascular endurance would be trained, as soldiers may be required to walk for long periods in order to get to a particular location. (Honeybourne, 2003, p107)
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METHODS I AM GOING TO USE I AM GOING TO USE THE METHODS BELOW: CIRCUIT TRAINING- THIS IS WHERE YOU HAVE DIFFERENT STATIONS TO WORK AT. THIS IS LESS BORING BECAUSE YOU ARE ALWAYS CHANGE WHAT YOU ARE DOING AND YOU CAN ALSO CHANGE THE FOCUS POINT AT WHICH THE TRAINING IS FOCUSED ON. YOU CAN ALSO INCLUDE SOME WEIGHT TRAINING WITHIN THIS WHICH I WOULD LIKE TO DO BECAUSE YOU NEED STRENGTH IN RUGBY. FARTLEK TRAINING WHICH IS A TYPE OF CONTINUES TRAINING WHERE IT IS NONE STOP FOR THE AMOUNT OF TIME YOU ARE WORKING FOR.
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Queensland Senior Physical Education, Macmillan Education Australia, South Yarra, Australia.) The types of feedback used in my coaching program were: * Knowledge of performance-general performance - this was used for the early stage of my coaching program when I needed a clear picture in my head to compare my actual performance with, eg. correct stance when serving. This type of feedback was provided to me by the coach, teacher and/or fellow participants in my program. I also watched my performances on video so I actually saw where I was going wrong and could then work on my motor skills.
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These activities are not exceedingly challenging but help to keep my general fitness good. I hope to soon start to go jogging after school for about 20 minutes after I have moved house, as the area I am moving to has a short circuit suitable for jogging around. I hope to jog this circuit at least 3 times a week and record the time it takes me to jog the circuit and to see how well I can improve. I hope to do this to improve my stamina and endurance and help to keep my heart pumping sufficient levels of oxygen to my muscles to keep my going throughout the jog.
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A basic warm up is as follows: * Gentle jog to raise the temperature of the muscles and increase the blood flow to get ready to begin training. * Rotations of hips, shoulders, neck and heads to loosen joints and make them more flexible to carry out the exercises. * Light stretching of arms, legs and other ligaments. Should be held for 6 or more seconds to pass the stretch reflex so that you can push yourself past boundaries to get a more effective workout.
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As the games are 80 minutes long for my age, I will need to have a high endurance. I will need to be agile, so that I can quickly change from one direction to another. On the right of midfield, you will often have to dribble down the wing. If you are agile, you will find it a lot easier to beat the opposition. There are other components that are used in football, but the components above are the main ones.
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Ski-Jumps - Stand by the side of a bench then jump to the alternate side - This will improve Muscular Endurance and will involve my gastrocnemius, hamstrings and quadriceps 8. Skipping - Do fast skipping with cross-overs - This will improve Cardiovascular Endurance and involves my heart 9. Biceps Curls - With a heavy weight in your hand bend your elbow and bring in your arm towards your body, flexing your bicep muscle - This will improve Muscular Endurance and involves my biceps Each week I will increase my circuit by...
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