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GCSE: Exercise and Training
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What to think about when planning a warm up activity
- 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
- 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
- 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
- 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
- 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.
Why are warm ups important?
- 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
- 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
- 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
- 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
- 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).
Flexibility as part of a warm up
- 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
- 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
- 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
- 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
- 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.
Define and describe fitness, health and exercise and evaluate the relationships between the three concepts
Body composition, the percentage of fat and lean tissue in your body. If you have too much fat, or too little fat, you are seen as being unfit. Stamina, is the body's ability to keep going for long periods without tiring. It is a combination of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. Cardiovascular endurance is the ability of the circulatory system to deliver the oxygen muscles need (also known as aerobic fitness). Muscular endurance, is the ability of muscles repeating contractions without tiring Aerobic fitness is the ability to transport oxygen around the body to muscles.
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I did enjoy the programme but it did cause me a lot of stress. But thanks to my partner, he kept me motivated and concentrated throughout every training. This could be why I went into progression and had a good result. I did not do the circuit in a different order because I didn't want the same type of exercise. I didn't get my maximum result because at week 6, station 8, skipping, I had twisted my ankle making me unable to continue.
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I have designed a circuit training programme to test my level of fitness. A circuit training programme is a method of training, which consists of 8 - 15 stations. Each of these stations will have different exercises all held for a certain amount of time.
For example pushing, lifting, or throwing the ball very quickly. * Coordination - When you can move your body precisely and smoothly to respond to something. * Speed - The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time. The skills above will all be placed in my training circuit, as they are all needed whilst playing Basketball. However to see if my level of fitness really has improved over the six week period, I will have to check my level of fitness before the circuit training programme begins. As a result I have had to run around the Mooga (a tennis court) 17 times in 12 minutes.
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At the beginning my exercises were fairly moderate and lax compared to the much higher intensity of the exercises performed in the final session which were much harder. From my programme evaluation sheets you can clearly see which exercises were chosen for their specific advantages for my chosen sport of football. Here is a list of my chosen exercises and how they improve or help with my chosen sport of football:- Exercise Area of fitness I hoped to improve by performing the exercise Sit ups General and constant strength which is essential in football for numerous activities e.g.
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Shuttle sprints: most sprints last for between 6 and 15 meters in a match, so it is important to work on them. Work your sprints in the following form, standing start, lying flat on your stomach start, running start, sprint forward with run back and then repeat all with a ball. Aim: To have a minimum of 3 markers to turn around, not necessary in a straight line. Muscular Endurance Use this circuit once a week to develop muscular endurance, perform in conjunction with a skill session or on a day after a match.
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Basic safety aspects, which I need to follow, are listed below: I must be sure that my body is able to cope with the demands of training My training must be specific, as specifity will prevent injuries Not to train too hard and give my body time to recover Do a warm up and warm down which are closely related to netball as this will also prevent injuries Wear the right gear e.g. footwear. No Jewellery No chewing Use the right equipment and set it out appropriately and safely Train with the right attitude and with motivation Make sure that
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Weight training involves a series of exercises using either sets or repetitions, to focus on specific muscle groups. All these exercises involve overcoming a resistance or load using either a machine or free weights. Circuit training is very useful for training certain muscle groups individually and also focuses on skill and fitness. An order is chosen using alternating muscle groups. This order gives time for that muscle group to rest while another muscle group is worked. Opposing muscle groups must be worked to ensure a balanced strength distribution.
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For example bouncing the ball on the racquet, which can also be thought of as a rest period. This exercise is simple and can be done standing on the spot. If this is to easy then the exercise can be made harder by using the backhand grip and even alternating between the two. This may also stop me getting bored of the exercise. This is what my overall Fartlek training will consist of. Jogging Sprinting Bouncing Ball Sprinting Walking 2 mins 1 min 2 mins 2mins 2 mins I may increase the times over the six-week period I could improve aerobic, anaerobic fitness.
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Back Strength This test was set out to see how strong our back was. In this test we used a , this was a gauge that measured how strong our back was while it was straight. To do this test we stood on the platform of the then we attached a handle to it and pulled on the handle. Names Strength Mike 195 Ryan 146 Steve 130.5 Nick 123 Andy 130 As you will see by these results Mike has the strongest back by a margin of 49. Grip Strength In this test we were testing how strong our grip was.
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Planning, performing, monitoring and evaluating a health related exercise/ training including a warm- up and warm- down
52 4 Shuttles 23 23 25 27 5 Ladder 15 16 16 17 6 Sit Ups 42 45 46 49 7 Press Ups 50 52 55 58 The reasons I selected these activities are to develop: The Upper body Muscles, Passing Skills and Overall Stamina How will you know if you have improved? I will do preliminary tests to test my current fitness levels, strength and agility. My current Resting Pulse Rate is 63 bpm. I will write out the other preliminary tests in the following table: Test name Result Re-test 1 Date Re-test 2 Date Re-test 3 Date Bleep
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I am a very keen sportsman who takes part in a whole range of sporting activity. At school I have participated in the school football team, captained the cricket team, done climbing, basketball and badminton.
Devising a training plan to get the correct techniques and skill to improve will do this. AIMS My specific aims of this investigation are to show improvement in the game of tennis this will be done by taking a pre-test to show how good I am at the sport. Then I will devise a training plan, which I will stick to for 4 weeks and do it 3 times a week. After this I will take a post-test to show how much I have improved since I first started the programme. Finally I will analyse what I have done and evaluate what could have gone better.
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This can be achieved in 3 ways: 1)you can increase the frequency of your training. For example you could start by training twice a week and then build it up to 3 times a week and then 4 times a week and so on. 2)the intensity of your training can be increased. You can do this by simply pushing yourself harder whilst training. 3)duration should be increased. This may be the length of each session or how many repetitions of an exercise you do each time, or by increasing the amount of time spent on each activity.
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Components of fitness and skill-related fitness required in chosen sport Although some people may not consider badminton to be a physically demanding sport, the demands on your body can be quite extensive. And it is for that reason which I think it is important that badminton players have good cardiovascular endurance; which is usually obtained from long-term endurance training, and depends on the capacity of the heart and circulatory system to meet the demands of the body for a sustained period of activity.
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My personal fitness program is designed to enhance my speed, agility and cardio-vascular fitness, as well as to improve my skill level in the main parts of tennis.
For much of my programme I will be working with a partner, which will increase my safety as they can call for or give help as necessary. I will be training at the Weald Tennis Club in Hassocks, who will provide me with tennis balls as well as courts and nets that are an appropriate size for my circuit, or at the school tennis courts where I will need my own balls; I will use my own tennis racket. The main risk of injury is from overusing my right arm and shoulder, which could cause overuse injuries such as 'tennis elbow'.
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My aim of my Personal Exercise Program is to improve three aspects, which can be improved to progress my game play in rugby
The voluntary muscles I will be exercising and using are: * Deltoids * Biceps * Triceps * Pectorals * Abdominals Principles of training The principals of my P.E.P. will be explained using these defined terms: Specificity If you are training for a particular position in a particular sport, you need to consider what muscles and types of fitness are emphasised in your activity. If you aren't training for a particular sport, then you need to consider your height, weight, gender, body shape, and goals before you choose a training program.
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After the 5 week period I will retake the tests to see if the results for the aspects of fitness have improved. This will then determine how successful my personal exercise program has been. Hopefully these aspects will have improved, defining the success of the circuit and my fitness and skills should have improved, allowing me to perform better in football. Age and Gender In designing my circuit there were many aspects to take into consideration but age and gender appeared to be the most likely complication. In general males are stronger and work at a higher plateau than females.
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When designing a fitness programme it is very important to remember that the traing period and structure must be split up into three main sections. Warm up, Conditioning and warm down.
when conditioning some coaches start with the Technique ? Group session ? Full game, where the main focus is too develop skills that are needed for an actual game. Most Coaches go through the technique gradually breaking it down piece by piece doing drills specific to the technique.
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In addition if between now and the dates of the fitness tests I receive an injury this will be taken into consideration, also alongside this at this moment in time my fitness level to begin with will not be at its peak due to the football season having just started, however as before this programme is designed especially to improve a footballers fitness within a specific period. I shall try to improve on my first score this will show that I am following a progressive overload during my training Throughout the programme there are a few key safety issues that
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Health and fitness are really important, as the person needs to be healthy and fit to play basketball. There are many things which effect fitness such as age, sex, somatotype, strength, power, flexibility, endurance and speed. There is general fitness and specific fitness. Basketball would require specific fitness, as it's a demanding sport, specific fitness is an extension of general fitness, as the physical demands require that an individual must prepare carefully for the specific needs of the activity. So an individual's natural ability and skill alone would not be enough to be a basketball player, as it requires much more skills.
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For my As level physical education Personal Performance Portfolio I have been asked to design a six-week training program for a sport of my choice from the syllabus.
I also take part in the college PE lessons when my state of fitness allows me. In my area there are a lot of facilities to be used including a swimming pool at Madeley Court School, sports centers in Stirchley and Bridgenorth. There is also the sports center at Lillishall that deals mostly with cricket and gymnastics but used to be the home of the England academy. I think that exercise is an extremely important part in our society, if it is not done a lot of people will be unhealthy, which may lead to more illness around the world.
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Personal exercise programme - Like all martial artists I feel that I am health-conscious, and amongst the most highly motivated, long-term devotees of overall health and physical fitness.
My current strength is of a reasonably high level although this will be my main target area. My physical training will typically emphasize the improvement of bio-motor abilities. Strength training for martial arts focuses on high-repetition sets performed at slow tempos, separated by short rest periods. Stretching is emphasized and may require 40 minutes or more per day to achieve meaningful results. Swimming, cycling, rowing, jumping rope and other aerobic cross-training exercises are useful in enhancing cardiovascular endurance, so I will include this as part of my warm up.
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I would like to see if people do follow the recommendations that they should exercise 3 times a week for 20 minutes, that increases your heart rate, so cardiovascular exercise would be good for this.
Gathering information in this way has some advantages and some disadvantages. Advantages are that the researcher is normally on hand to clarify any queries the respondent may have and to make sure that the questionnaire is completed correctly. They are practical and a lot of data can be gained in a short space of time. The results achieved can be quite descriptive and the data relatively easily analysed. Disadvantages of a questionnaire can include, that the responses are limited as the respondent can only answer the questions that they have been asked, not really able to volunteer information, which could be relevant.
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I have been asked to make a 6 week training programme to improve a part of my physical life e.g. speed, strength, muscular endurance etc.
To improve my game I will have to make training programmes and other ways. I will have to set my self, targets/goals to improve my speed. To achieve my targets I will have to stick to my targets and I will also have to change my diet. Speed is the ability to move all or part of the body as quickly as possible. For our bodies to achieve speed, we have to supply energy to our muscles very quickly. The muscles then have to contract in the shortest possible time. We use our anaerobic energy supply system for speed work.
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There are five components in skill-related fitness being agility, balance, coordination, reaction time and power. Fitness requirements differ tremendously between athletes and activities. Fitness testing is essential for an elite athlete since it can identify weaknesses and assess the value of the training programme. Any fitness tests conducted must be maintained on a regular basis to ensure validity. Maximal Oxygen uptake of VO2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken in, transported and consumed by the working muscles per minute, it is the best predictor of aerobic capacity.
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How muscular strength, endurance, size and actions can beenhanced by fitness and training for daily tasks.
To improve athletic performance 6) To save a life or property in the event of an emergency situation 7) To aid rehabilitation after illness or injury Muscular endurance is the ability to use the voluntary muscles many times without getting tired. This is different to the concept of muscular strength however the two things are related and go hand in hand. Some people are able to exert the necessary force for certain actions but they cannot continue doing this for long periods of time, these people need to improve their muscular endurance. Some people cannot actually do these tasks because their muscles are not big enough or strong enough.
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