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GCSE: Exercise and Training
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What to think about when planning a warm up activity
- 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
- 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
- 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
- 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
- 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.
Why are warm ups important?
- 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
- 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
- 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
- 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
- 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).
Flexibility as part of a warm up
- 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
- 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
- 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
- 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
- 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.
� Speed - the ability to perform a movement in a short period of time. This is essential in football, for example to be able to sprint after a through ball or tackle an opponent who is through on goal. � Agility - the ability to change direction quickly and control movements of the whole body. This is needed to be able to change direction quickly while dribbling or to collect a loose ball. � Cardiovascular Endurance - the ability of the heart, lungs and circulation to deliver oxygen and remove waste during exercise.
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Our first smoker had last smoked three hours previously, had been smoking for three years, and has approximately 100 cigarettes per week. Surely this person would be less fit than someone who has never smoked tobacco in their life. We tried our best to match the age and size of our testers closely as this may alter our results, but obviously this wasn't too easy, we did, however, manage to use people who had less than three months' age difference.
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My results for the tests are shown on below the details of the tests, they are compared to the national averages. With the multi-stage fitness test we make use of a pre-recorded cassette-tape, on which a regular beep is heard. Before we start, we have to set out a stretch of 20-metres. The players have to run up and down the 20 metres. Every time they hear the beep on the cassette, they have to be on one side of the stretch, turn and run back.
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This includes alcohol and smoking as well as drugs. Below is a weekly diet for my footballer, it is not a must have this exactly, but an example of a food to have form each group and the sort of things to eat. Time/Meal Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (Match Day) Sunday (Rest Day) Breakfast Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Cereal/toast and fruit with fruit juice drink Anything Lunch Soup Protein-Sandwich Water Soup Scrambled eggs on toast Pasta
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Plan What is exercise? Quote from the dictionary. Anaerobic Aerobic Positive Benefits from exercise.
If oxygen is unavailable, glucose uses rise dramatically and waste products such as lactic acid builds up (5). Exercise is a necessity for achieving strength, stamina and attitude for success in both your academic and social lives. Exercise has many psychological and physical benefits as well as negative floors (5). Positive benefits Cardiovascular fitness is the fitness of the heart, lungs, blood vessels and blood. It may help to control your weight, it can improve your energy levels and can keep you active for longer. In order to maintain good health a person needs to strengthen the muscles of the heart and other parts of the cardiovascular system, such as the blood vessels and the blood (5).
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Before I started to even design my personal exercise programme, I had to find out my general level of fitness.
In tennis, strength endurance is the most important type. This is where I need to undergo repeated contractions withstanding fatigue, over a long period of time. Such situations are common in a tennis rally where I would use continuous maximum effort in each shot to make it harder for the opponent to return. Maximum strength is also important. This is where a very large force is used for example in the tennis serve, where a harder hit should make the ball move quicker in the air, and so bounce off the ground faster.
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This is my introduction to my 6 week training my main goals that I with to achieve by doing this program are increase my stamina and speed which will benefit me in a strikers positions in football.
After I have done the final test I will compare them to see how much I have improved. I would describe myself as a Normally healthy and fit person. When I do my training program there will be certain factor that will affect my training program. I had listed a few factor below which will effect my training program. -Facilities -When -How-What equipment I can use -How often -How Hard Facilities: The facilities which I can use in my area are the local school gym at Kiveton park ,Kiveton park sports facilities , my home and the schools running tracks.
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I will be doing mainly weight training in the Gym but also concentration on my aerobic capacity by going on the treadmill. My training sessions with my Hockey team will mainly consist of skills training, however fitness training will also be included during the warm up and the cool down. In order to carry out this training programme correctly, I need to consider the four main principles of training which are: > Specificity > Overload > Progression > Reversibility Specificity is where the training must be suitable and specific to the 4 main components of fitness that I have chosen to work on.
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For the beginning of my action plan it will contain a less intense workout, this is because gradually the intensity will become harder. Every two weeks I shall devise a drill to test my improvement of my power.
Then keeping your back in contact with the ground place one leg over and stretch. Each for 15 secs. Jogging 30 seconds This is more of a pre season training season but a slow work out to get you starter. Aim: The aim for this week is to be able to improve on the distance ran in the first day to the last. Day 1 Pick a route ideally on grass with hills. If you train with a group of friends then you can all choose your own fartlek route. That way you will not be covering the same ground.
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Due to the constant stop start style of movement a player has during the game a competitors ATP system must be used a lot. This is basically the energy produced by the respiratory system, which is used by our muscles, the more ATP produced by aerobic respiration the longer our muscles can work at a higher level for longer, this being important in a game of football. Football is of course a contact sport so not only is aerobic fitness necessary but so is strength.
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Fitness test results: Test Result Sit and Reach To be entered Vertical jump To be entered Balance Test To be entered Pull ups To be entered Sit ups To be entered 30m sprint To be entered MSF test To be entered Skin fold calliperies To be entered Juggling To be entered Reaction Time To be entered Analysis of Football: Football is a very physically demanding sport a game can be constantly moving meaning a player can get no real time for a long period of rest.
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The purpose of my personal exercise program is to improve my speed and strength that are two integral components of fitness.
60 Metres Dash Testing 60 Metre Run 1 7.8 60 Metre Run 2 7.6 60 Metre Run 3 7.9 Average 7.77 To reduce the risk of injury and facilitate the strength gains that Plyometrics can give, the athlete must first establish a speed and resistance training base. Beginning Plyometrics too early in the conditioning cycle, or with the inexperienced athlete, can be disastrous. Several factors need to be considered before beginning a plyometric training program. These factors are: Physical Maturity of the Athlete The age of the athlete or the number of years that they have participated does not measure their physical maturity.
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* Reduces chances of injury or soreness in muscles, ligaments or tendons. Here is a typical warm up that most people would use before doing an activity which uses heavy use of muscles in your body. Most warm ups would start with a light jog around the area that you are going to participate in. For example, if you are about to participate in a game of football, then jogging the width of the pitch a few times is a good ideal start to a warm up. It is an ideal start as it warms up your muscles and makes them a lot more flexible, lowering the risk of injury.
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* We will only get fitter if we work our body systems hard enough to make them adapt. * We must start at the right intensity, depending on our current fitness. * We must understand and use our training thresholds. * Needs to be between 60% and 80% of our maximum heart rate. Time - How long we train. * To improve aerobic fitness our training sessions should last longer and our working heart rate level should rise. * Each session should last at least 20 minutes to gain any real benefit. Type - What kind of training we do.
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I will be dividing my programme into blocks as a way to organise my exercise and training. The programme I will be designing and completing will be a one-month programme making it a mesocycle. A mesocycle is an intermediate training block made up of four microcycles (one for each week). This is the plan of my week: Week plan * Monday: Rest * Tuesday: Intense gym Intense * Wednesday: Rest * Thursday: Intense fitness training Intense * Friday: Rest * Saturday: Light Gym Light * Sunday: Game Intense Variables As the week I will have three peaks of exercise during the week with light training session too.
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Due to there being so many different types of sports the components of fitness needed in these activities vary from sport to sport. These components are put into two different categories, health related fitness and skill related fitness. Skill related fitness includes factors such as agility, balance, co-ordination, reaction time and power. The health related fitness factors include the following and are physiologically based: 1. Cardio respiratory or Aerobic Endurance The ability to do moderately strenuous activity over a period of time.
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Taking part with the right attitude We need to: * Obey the rules * Respect our opponents and follow etiquette Principles of training We need to train to improve our fitness. For steady progress and to avoid injury we should follow the SPORT principles: 1. Specificity 2. Progression 3. Overload 4. Reversibility 5. Tedium Specificity Every type of exercise has a particular effect on the body. The type of training we choose must be right for the type of improvement we want to see.
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> On Saturdays and some Sundays I go to work, which involves standing up all day and walking around the shop and going up and down the stairs. > I do general housework, such as the ironing, hovering and tidying The following tests will give me an indication of my current level of fitness: I. Multistage Fitness Test It is a popular test because it is easy; the test consists of running to and from shuttles 20 meters apart, when reaching the end of the 20 meters touch the line with a foot and run.
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Finally the ambulance did arrive and took Craig to hospital. He went under the knife and had his broken bone put back in its place. A cast was put on his leg so that it could heal but there was more bad news to come from the consultant. He said to Craig in a serious tone of voice, " Well son, you have broken your fibula. Now it's not all bad news, given the proper recovery time and treatment, you could be back in approximately a year."
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Agility is the ability to change direction quickly and control movements of the whole body. This is needed to be able to change direction quickly while dribbling. Overload To improve the fitness of a part of the body, you need to overload it. This means you need to make it work harder than usual. Over time, it adapts to meet the increased demand by getting fitter. You can overload your body in three ways: � By increasing the Frequency of exercise. For example start by exercising once a week, then move up to three or four times a week.
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In football you need many requirements that are not just skill related, but also general fitness these are speed, this is needed to outrun the defenders or if you are a defender you need to be able to catch up a forward, this is how Michael Owen scores many of his goals. You need agility which also will help you turn defenders and get more space to get a shot in. Strength is another aspect which is needed in football so that you can win more in the air challenges and to shrug of a defender when doing a run, again Michael Owen is an example as he looses many goals as he is out powered by many defenders.
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The total number of circuits performed during a training session may vary from two to six depending on your training level (beginner, intermediate, or advanced), your period of training (preparation or competition) and your training objective. In each circuit try to ensure that no two consecutive exercises exercise the same muscle group.
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It can be improved with practice (obviously) and skill drills. Movement time:-how quickly a performer can carry out the actual movement. For example, how quickly it would take a netball to run into space and get into position. This is a vital element in the game of netball because other ways the opposition will have the opportunity to intercept and gain possession of the ball. This can be improved by Sprint interval training and Faartlek training. Speeding is also needed when dodging the opposition. Strength A netball player would require explosive and dynamic strength.
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In the standard Beep Test (also known as the Leger Test), the runner covers a 20 meter interval at steadily increasing pace, with several iterations to be completed at each pace before moving on to the next. In the Birtwell Test, a 40 meter course is used. There are also tests for which the running pace varies randomly, in an attempt to more closely match game conditions. There are also variations that allow some recovery time between running intervals. I used the L�ger Test; we did the test in our sports hall with 20 metre intervals.
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Bend your arms at the elbow and bring the weight towards your chest, lower the weight slowly and repeat until the time is exceeded. 2) Tricep dips Sit down on a bench, place your hands at the side of you. Put your weight into your arms and move forward so that your bottom is not touching the bench. Whilst doing this straighten your legs out. Lower yourself but not far enough that touch the floor then push yourself up into the first position.
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