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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. Personal Exercise Program

    The faster the reaction time of a player, the faster the player can react on and off the ball. For example, making a tackle at the right time, or shooting first time. Power: power is needed to pass/strike the ball over long distances and also for one to have a starting force to launch a sprint. Power is speed x strength, the skill to apply maximum muscular contraction immediately in an explosive burst of movements. Balance: this is the skill to maintain a body position in a stationary or moving manner.

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  2. Logbook on Swimming

    Then your arms is also used to power your way forward, and they should be rotating around the circle clockwise (in and out of the water) and also making sure your head is close to the surface of the water so you can breathe in air easily. Merit The reason I need to use this two stroke is because if I don't use it, I cannot travel one side of the swimming pool to the other. Freestyle and Backstroke is my favourite strokes, and I use it because I'm more familiar with it and I know how it works e.g.

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  3. Football. I will now be looking at different training practises that can be used to maintain my strengths and improve my weaknesses penalty box soccerAs I have identified shooting as one of my strengths I will need a practise that will help me maintain t

    In this practise, the game starts with the keeper from one team throwing the ball to a team-mate. This is like a real match however it's played in the penalty box. The game is decided by the first goal scored. The team that scores stays on the field and the losing team are replaced by a new team. You can progress this by putting a time limit and if the score is still level after a certain time, both teams go off and are replaced. This puts both teams under more pressure and it means they try to shoot more often.

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  4. In football, the skills that are my weaknesses are: tackling, set pieces, dribbling and crossing.The fitness components that are my weaknesses are: balance, flexibility, muscular endurance and reaction time.

    My penalties, corners and free kicks are not a particular strong part of my game. I know this is a weakness because I am never picked to take any corners, free kicks or penalties. This is not too much of a problem as there are other people on the team who are better, however it means I cannot create chances for my team or score myself. My set pieces are not accurate enough meaning if I do take an occasional corner etc, I don't often pick out a teammate leading to them getting frustrated or worse, losing possession.

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  5. AQA PE GCSE coursework

    My current level of health: I do not suffer from any persistent illnesses and at the moment I have no injuries that will affect me when doing the circuit training. This means I will be able to get an accurate set of results. My current level of fitness: I already exercise and have a fairly high level of general fitness. General fitness concerns the day-to-day working of the body. This is sometimes called health related fitness because it helps to keep you healthy.

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  6. There are many factors that can affect sporting performances in positive and negative ways. In this section I will talk about a few of these examples which include social, physiological and psychological.

    This has a positive affect on someone's performance as they can easily get to this place and train which will help improve their performances. If a club is nearby, then it is also more likely that you stick to it as you don't have to travel a long distance to get to it. This will mean you will have more time to practise and improve in a sport as you go everyday in order to get better. By having things like football leagues nearby, it will also motivate you more as you will want to achieve more things such as wining trophies.

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  7. Compnents of Fitness

    Some examples of how to increase cardiovascular endurance are: Running, cycling and swimming. The reason why Stamina is important to my sport, and being a forward in rugby in particular is that I need it to be able to play 80 minutes of a game. I need to be able to run to each break down (I.e. A ruck, or maul) then follow on to the next breakdown. 2. Flexibility: The ability of joints to move through their full range of motion.

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  8. My target is to do 5 training sessions to improve my speed and muscle power. I want to improve my speed to complete a whole rounder regularly and to get to the next base safely by being quicker when playing rounders.

    I need good cardio-vascular endurance so that I could keep playing the rounders for a long time without getting tired. So my aim is to improve my cardio-vascular endurance up to 8.0 after training, by using a lot of water during it. My score before training for agility is 20.15 seconds. I need good agility so I can run fast base to base, changing direction at speed. My aim is to improve my agility by decreasing my time to 18.5 seconds. The arrows with the pictures are showing that in which position which muscle is stretching. Gastrocnemius muscles is stretching.

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  9. Sports Assignment - Basketball

    It was only in 1906 that nets, boards, and a metal hoop was introduced. That resembles what we have in modern day. The YMCA helped propagate this sport throughout the US and Canada. The first championship took place in 1897. Soon, basketball became a professional sport, with teams. The Buffalo Germans were among the first who competed in championships. The influence of the YMCA helped spread basketball further, into European countries. When the World War occurred in the 1910s, the US army brought basketball everywhere they went. This helped spread the idea of basketball worldwide.

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  10. PEP - The programme will help to develop my running skills further, as it is specific to running. I will take into account my current fitness

    This means that I will get accurate results. I don't have any injuries or any health problems. But if I increase my activities a lot I will hurt my self. My muscles will be so tired they might rip a lot but wont repair as quickly, some could take a month. State what targets you expect to achieve by the end of the 5 sessions in terms of aspects of fitness/skills you want to improve. The programme will help to develop my running skills further, as it is specific to running.

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  11. Sport nutrient the three food groups

    Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature and are usually vegetable fats a good example of this is nuts and sunflower oil. Protein - essential to growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues. Protein is found in dairy products such as eggs and meats. Micronutrients consist of three food groups: Vitamins - are responsible for normal growth, provide proper metabolism, ensure good health and protect against certain diseases. Found in fruits such as oranges, pears and mangos. Minerals - provide structure in forming bones and teeth and help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity, and acid-base balance.

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  12. Sport nutrition P3, P4, M1

    Protein are complex molecules, the body takes longer to break them down. As a result, they are a much slower and longer lasting source of energy than carbohydrates. Fats are the slowest source of energy but the most energy efficient. Each gram of fat supplies the body with about 9 calories this is more than proteins or carbohydrates. Measuring requirements Body composition is the most commonly used classification for an individual's bodies shape and size. There are three body types, even though a individual will not fit in the body type perfectly it is still a excellent method of classifying there body shape.

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  13. User Guide-Database

    For some data, a dropdown box is used (such as Title in the Customers Form). To enter data into these, click on the blue arrow at the right hand side of the dropdown box, and click on the option that you want from the list that appears. This works in the same way with the Books Form, which you would open if you wanted to add a new book to the database. Amending Data Say a customer moves home, which is a common occurrence. Several details about them will change, such as their telephone number, their address and their postcode.

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  14. Personal Exercise Plan

    Fitness Test 3: Press-up Test: * This test measures the ability of my biceps and triceps muscles to work without getting tired. * This aspect is relevant to my activity because both of these muscles would have to be worked for a long period of time especially when batting or when bowling constantly. Raw Score: 15 * Compared to the rest of the class this was just below average, meaning that the ability of my biceps and triceps to work many times without getting tired is slightly less the others in my class.

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  15. will be looking at all the different skills and fitness components needed to perform, and to play at the peak of a sport. As well as this, I will also be looking at strengths and weaknesses in a sport and practises needed in order to improve your performa

    This will overall lead to our team losing the match. Heading is another skill needed in football and if done properly, it can be effective with both attacking and defending. This is used when the ball is in the air and you want to get to it first by using your head. It is useful when your team has a corner or a team mate is going to cross the ball to you. In both of these situations, if you head the ball and direct it accurately towards goal, chances are you will score a goal.

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  16. In football, the skills that are my strengths are: passing, heading, shooting and first touch.

    In attack, I also go up for corners and try to score a header at every opportunity. So far I have scored 3 headers this season and by using match analysis I can see I win an average of 10 headers per match. Headers also have a positive effect on the defensive side of my performance. I often come back to help my team defend corners and free kicks by heading the ball clear. By combining my headers with man marking, when the opposition have a set piece, I often get my head to the ball first clearing it effectively helping my team enormously.

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  17. What tools make the perfect coach?

    Coaching is identified as being the process "of importing techniques, skills knowledge and attitudes which are aimed at improving an individuals performance", (adapted from the NCVQ definition of coaching). The role of coaches has been recognised as being able to motivate performers, develop the performer physically, psychologically, and socially. Also seen in many journals, books etc.. It's put forwards that it's the role of the coach to be, the friend, to be the administrator, to be the scientist, to be the people person, and so forth, which there can be no denying that many of these jobs lie with the coach; they must be the friend and the teacher.

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  18. Analysis of the lay up in basketball

    Aim to jump towards the side off the basket and at the top of your leap, roll the ball out your shooting hand. Step 4 Try and lay the ball softly on to the backboard, hit the top corner of the rectangle on your side of the basket Mechanics of the lay-up There are biomechanical movements that take place when performing the lay-up. In the preparation stage there is an important transfer of weight. You must transfer all your weight onto the front leg.

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  19. pep. Bob is a obese individual, who doesnt do hardly any exercise at all. He plays no sports. And has a very unbalanced diet. In this personal exercise plan, I am going to work on improving Bobs cardiovascular endurance (stamina) and muscular endur

    The five principles are: Specificity; is to ensure that training relates to your sport/needs. Progression; is to make sure you gradually increase the intensity of exercise over your plan. Overload; is where you do one session a week when you are pushing your body to the absolute maximum. Reversibility; we need to ensure this doesn't occur in our plan. Reversibility is where you stop training, and your muscles begin to atrophy. Tedium; is where you change the training so the participator doesn't get bored.

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  20. The tripod of feeling good

    To have a good combination you have to think about how much you exercise and plan your meals around that. If you train much you need more energy; you should therefore eat many carbohydrates and less protein and vegetables, since carbohydrates is the richest energy source. When you are loading for a contest you should upload with slow carbohydrates, like pasta or potatoes, which is stored as glycogen in your muscles and liver until you competing. And after a competition is it important to refill your glycogen storage by eat or drinking something with fast carbohydrates, such as a banana or sports drink.

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  21. Sport leadership - planning, communicating and motivating.

    Unit 2 Communication skills include verbal, non-verbal and use of whistle. Whilst teaching a lesson it is important to communicate with pupils in an appropriate manner. When you verbally communicate you need to make sure you Phrase your words clearly and positively. Try to have a basic outline of what you are going to say, you have to think before you use your words so the student know you are well prepared and will not lose concentration. Make sure you speak in a loud voice so all students can hear as a result listen carefully to you, whilst speaking make sure you have pauses and not speaking all in one go, also do not add an "ah", "um" as the student will take advantage as they think you are nervous.

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  22. Warm Ups - reasons to do them and how it affects the body.

    This lubricating fluid allows the ends of the bones to slide smoothly and absorbs shocks. Mobility exercises must be controlled, continuous and smooth. Avoid jerky or flinging movements. A warm up should mobilise all the joints to be used (usually ankles, knees, hips, spine, shoulder, neck, elbows and wrist). Many mobility exercises can be performed whilst moving and can be combined with activities that raise the pulse. Examples include shoulder or arm circles, bending and straightening wrists and elbows. Phase 2 - Pulse Raising Exercise This is any activity that increases the heart rate steadily, not suddenly.

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  23. Physical Activity & Sailing in Australian Society

    These results came to show that from those surveyed, 90% participated in some form of physical activity, which is larger than the state average of 26% ([2] Involvement in Organised Sport and Physical Activity [Online]). This local research also came to show that males were more likely to be involved in physical activity than females (as shown in Appendix B). Again from local research, it was observed that commonly it was males and females in the age group 70+ who didn't participate in any physical sport.

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  24. Jogging for muscular endurance program coursework

    * Jogging is a good way of relieving stress. My jogging programme This will be my weekly programme; I will be following this for 6 weeks. To monitor the effects of my program I will perform a timed jog before I start the programme and at the end of the programme to see if I have made progress or not. Type Time Distance Location Stimulation Monday Continuous 1 hour Road Walkman Tuesday Rest Day Wednesday Continuous 2 miles Park Dog Thursday Continuous 1 hour Road Music Friday Rest Day Saturday Fartlek 2.5 miles Park Partner Sunday Rest Day Clothing * You will need well-cushioned shoes that are designed for jogging.

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  25. Weight training program coursework

    When using weights to develop muscular strength, all work should be at, or near maximum capability in the exercise being performed, and the number of repetitions performed in each set should be low. At lest 8-10 reps at 60-80 per cent of maximum capability. To develop muscular endurance the number of repetitions needs to be much higher than when exercising for muscular strength. This requires between 15-20 repetitions of each exercise to be performed at around 30-40 per cent of maximum capability.

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