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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. Advantages & Disadvantages Of Circuit Training

    ? It can be adapted for any size of training area. ? It is possible to be adapted for the specificity, easy to adapt to its sport. ? The training of circuit adapts or for the development of the aerobics resistance or it burns it of fat. It is, nevertheless, less adapted for those than they wish to construct to the force or the appointment muscular mass . The duration of some places of training in circuit can be in the region of 45 to 60 seconds, and in some cases up to two minutes.

    • Word count: 450
  2. In my PEP I have chosen to use continuous training as this improves aerobic fitness which is a key factor in my chosen sport, football.

    I will measure this by comparing my re-test result to my original test result. I think this goal is achievable because it is not an extreme target and after 6 weeks of continuous training it should be relatively easy. I think my goal is realistic as my training resources are local and accessible to me. I hope to achieve my goal within 6 weeks as that is how long my PEP will last, after which I will re-test. ________________ Have you any medical conditions?

    • Word count: 2597
  3. Different athletes diet

    What I mean by this is that he will need the minerals, vitamins, fibre and obviously the water. Endurance athletes need a very precise diet to compete at the highest level. This diet will consist of mainly of carbohydrates and fats. This is to give them the required energy supply they need to run the whole distance at a constant high speed. Carbohydrates are the principle source of energy and contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Being a runner of up to 10,000 meters Mo will need a lot of slow releasing energy to let him perform at this level constantly.

    • Word count: 555
  4. The Health Benefits of Recreational Sport.

    These include the improvement in academic work. Many physically fit students recorded higher achievements dude to greater concentration levels. Physical activity can also provide social interaction that helps to build the community and reduce isolation and exclusion. c) Regular physical activity can also benefit someone because it can reduce depression, anxiety and stress. It can also increase a person?s self-esteem, as well as improving someone?s sleeping habits. 3.0 The chosen social group is children/ adolescents (0-17 years). This group was chosen because that group is that group I fit into so it would be easiest for me to show the motivations interests and common health issues.

    • Word count: 890

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