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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. As part of the GCSE P.E course I have to make a personal exercise plan to get me playing cricket at my full potential. I have decided to focus on two main aspects of fitness.

    2 marks Exercise Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session 4 Session 5 STAR JUMPS 1 set of 10 1 set of 15 2 sets of 10 2 sets of 15 3 sets of 15 SIT UPS 1 set of 10 1 set of 15 2 sets of 10 2 sets of 15 3 sets of 15 CONE TO LINE 1 set of 10 1 set of 15 2 sets of 10 2 sets of 15 3 sets of 15 BOX JUMPS 1 set of 10 1 set of 15 2 sets of 10 2 sets of 15 3 sets

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  2. The overall aims of my personal exercise program are to: 1. Improve specific and current fitness levels required for my sporting activity Cricket e.g. Cardio vascular endurance

    My endurance is at a good level however my strength is poor. From this table, I have to be able to make a graph to show my level of fitness and then the level which is needed for my sport. It also shows what level I want to be at the end of my P.E.P. To summarize these I want my upper body strength and all round body strength to be very good so I am looking for an increase in the weight which I can bench press.

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  3. Throughout this personal exercise programme I aim to improve my cardio-vascular fitness and my speed. The specific areas I wish to improve on are my fitness levels as if I am to be playing in central midfield or wide left midfield

    as it is hard work but I know that if I want to play professionally I am to play wherever I am selected and do it to the best of my ability. But my new manager at Oldham, has said he will play me in a more attacking role this season, so I can play to my strengths. My biggest achievements in football are, being selected to play for Cheshire schoolboys, or signing on at Oldham Athletics Centre of Excellence.

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  4. "Exercise Physiology Laboratory Tests"

    What type of muscular contraction is occurring in the jump? When the jump is made the muscular contraction occurring is an isotonic muscle contraction. 4. What energy system was in use? As the jumping is a fast and explosive movement, it would be using the Creatine Phosphate energy system. 5. What other test could be used to evaluate explosive power? An alternative test could be kicking a ball from a stationary position and then measuring the distance the ball goes.

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  5. Circuit and Running Training Methods

    There is a number of different exercises (such as press ups or abdominal curls) are selected to form a set. The athlete works through each of the different exercises in order, doing each the required number of times until they have completed one set. This same set is then repeated. There is always a rest of a few minutes between each set of exercises, because it makes the exercises work more effectively and occasionally a smaller rest between each individual exercise. So, for example, a basic 'Normal' circuit's session might be 25 Press Ups, followed by 35 Abdominal Curls, then 15 Squat Jumps These three make up a set; this set may then be repeated three times within a certain time basis with rests after each set has being completed.

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  6. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is volleyball and he wants to improve his flexibility, muscular strength and cardiovascular system. I will make sure I use different training methods

    They are also not boring activities as some of them are done in the athletics tracks, which makes my client breathe fresh air and get in the running atmosphere. Smart goals for his weaknesses: I have made SMART goals for this 6-week training programme. This will help my client from the beginning to the end. It will help him by making sure he focuses on the training programme, make him motivate and confident. His muscular strength in his abdominals will hopefully improve from 42 sit ups a minute to at least 50, then 28 cm at the sit and reach

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  7. Am going to base my circuit around football as I feel there are areas that I could improve on. As well as improving my overall game this circuit will also vastly

    To finish off the circuit a warm down should be instructed to ensure that the muscles warm down correctly. A warm down relaxes all the muscles after strenuous exercise otherwise they may become tiff and uncomfortable. It also removes lactic acid and waste that is produced. After each station has been completed the pulse rate should be measured. This will tell you what your recovery rate is and how fit one is. As the circuit progresses the recovery rate should get quicker, this shows that the body is adapting to the amount of strenuous work it is being put through Appropriateness of exercise As I am basing me circuit around football I will try to make the stations as relevant as possible to the sport.

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  8. In this assignment I tested a client and obtain his results, this hopefully will help me to know what exercise are needed for an specific sport and getting confidence on giving feedback to my client

    You then record your results with a stop watch. This tests the endurance of the athlete's upper body muscles. * Step Up Test: This is done by stepping up and down on a step for 3 minutes. You use a metronome or have someone to help you keep to the required pace in which you step to. 5 seconds after finishing the test you count your heart beats for fifteen seconds. This test will test your cardio vascular system * Hip & Waist Test: This includes a meter long stripe which will be put around the hip's client and when the record is being made they will measure the waist as low as possible to also record the numbers.

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  9. ENDURANCE test the Aerobic Energy SystemThe multistage fitness test

    A person's aerobic fitness level is dependent upon the amount of oxygen which can be transported by the body to the working muscles, and the efficiency of the muscles to use that oxygen. The best test for aerobic fitness is the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test. As this test can be expensive and time consuming, many other simpler tests have been designed to predict a VO2max score. The many tests for aerobic fitness can be divided into either maximal or sub maximal tests.

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  10. In this essay I will be talking about exercise health and lifestyle and how they all link in. Then in the next part I will be talking diseases that can be caused by a lack of exercise a sedentary lifestyle (poor exercise eating unhealthy foods etc.)

    Any one's lifestyle can be put into two categories it can be either active where you take lots of physical activity or play sport and have an physical demanding job some examples of these are Builders, Carpenters or fitness instructors. If you don't have an active lifestyle then you have a sedentary lifestyle, where you don't do any physical activity and have a non-active job, some examples of these are office workers, bus drivers or taxi drivers. Over the years lifestyle has transferred into more sedentary, this is because technology has increased and there is less manual jobs around and more office based environments.

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  11. The purpose/aim of this programme is to see if I can make a detectable difference in my fitness over 6 sessions of physical training the areas of my fitness I will be testing are, agility, speed and stamina

    perform to their full ability so to remedy this problem you could take the group indoors and adjust the session to the different environment but make sure it is as close as possible to the original session plan. At the beginning of my session I will begin a warm-up that will stretch all of the muscles and especially the muscles that will be doing a lot of work in the specific session, at the end of the session I will start a cool-down this will decrease the chance of someone picking up an injury or getting cramp at the end

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  12. Like any athlete, cricket players also need to follow a strength and conditioning program that aims towards them peaking at certain stages of the year. By concentrating on a combination of strength training and CV workouts

    So therefore variation is needed so that you do not get bored easily during the activities. Explanation of F.I.T.T F= Frequency: the amount of sessions you are training for. I= Intensity: increase intensity e.g. 4 laps instead of 2 laps T= Time: how long your sessions are: e.g. 1 session could be 30 minutes, then the next 60minutes long T= Type: the type of exercise you do. You could change this to meet your demands. Introduction about me: My name is Ben Warner. I am 15 years old and in my fitness program I am hoping to improve my bowling accuracy if successful.

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  13. Strengths Skill/technique Tackling In rugby when you do not have the ball you have to defend. To do this you stop the opposition

    This is one of the reasons why I believe that I am a good tackler. Once I have tackled someone I get back on to my feat and try and win the ball (jackling). Tackling can be very dangerous and it is very important that you follow a correct technical model e.g. having your head on the correct side. I no that tackling is one of my strengths as I do not miss many tackles and my fellow teammates have told me that I am a good tackler. Passing In rugby you have to be able to pass the ball at a fairly high level especially if you play scrum half witch I sometimes do.

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  14. GCSE training program for a right midfielder in football

    I will do this 5 times throughout the session(once every week. My second piece of skill will be free kicks. I will aim for a spot in the goal and see how many of my shots hit the target. I will record my results in a table then convert this into a graph. I will do this once a week and have 10 shots. I will do this 5 times a week. To measure my fitness elements I will: Muscular endurance- I will see how many press ups I can do in 1 minute.

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  15. Taking part in health related fitness prevents a range of diseases such as obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Taking part in a health-related fitness programme will reduce a persons

    An area of fitness that people often neglect is flexibility. As we get older our bodies become less flexible. If a person lacks flexibility they are more likely to injure themselves through overstretching or pulling a muscle Maintaining muscular strength is very important for many different reasons. By taking part in resistance training exercises or weight-bearing activities a person will be less likely to suffer from osteoporosis, a disease in which bones become very fragile and more likely to break after a fall.

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  16. Chosen Activity for P.E.P - Basketball, I currently partake in this sport for the school and therefore thought it would be sensible to do it. Facilities available - Hand Weights.

    It also will allow me to be specific and adapt the exercises and work intensities easily as the programme develops. As well as doing the circuits I will also attend two basketball practices, one in school and one which I will do on my own at the weekend, I will also try to play matches when arranged. I will arrange the time of the circuits to ensure I have either an ample recovery period after a match or rest before a match.

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  17. I have chosen Volleyball as my sporting activity for the personal exercise program. The reasons for this are that I have now played volleyball for the school teams

    However, when trying to maximise performance, it is important to determine the athlete's ability in individual aspects of performance. Fitness testing attempts to measure individual components of performance, with the ultimate aim of studying and maximising the athlete's ability in each component. To test my main component of fitness, which is leg power, I shall be using the following test and I have justified why along with the name of the test: * 1 Repetition Maximum Squat The reason I have chosen to use this test to test my leg power is that the squat is an explosive exercise which will test the amount of power by the weight involved.

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  18. I have chosen to base my personal exercise plan on netball because it is a sport that I have participated in since primary school and that I enjoy and understand. The positions I usually play are goal attack and centre

    I will also use continuous training daily to increase my stamina, this alongside my interval training should allow me to increase my speed and stamina and therefore benefit my game Targets. I aim to increase the amount of time I am able to comfortably run from 3 minutes to five minutes over the next four weeks To use interval training and aim to use this method for an hour with longer breaks of 1minute 30 seconds every fifteen minutes without feeling as tired.

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  19. Personal exercise program to improve my abilities in cricket, such as cardiovascular endurance, and my muscular endurance.

    Exercise Press ups Sit ups Dips Sprints Timed run Amount of exercise 13 in a minute. 26 in a minute. 12 in a minute. 30 metres in 5.7 seconds 2minutes 30 seconds Method: I am going to be performing a circuit training exercise program with 3 times per week and 3 sets in each performance, I wont have a resting time between each station except the time it will take me to walk slowly to the next station, the only rest I shall have is at the end of each set, from 1 minute to 45 seconds and no longer.

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  20. Badminton is the sport I have chosen to train for and use my personal exercise plan to regain fitness. The new badminton season is about to begin and after a month of low intensity training and rest I need to improve

    By improving my muscular endurance in my legs I would be able to carry on moving about the court effectively for a longer period of time without a lapse in my game performance. It will also allow me to continue jumping to take the shuttle earlier and at a higher point this making some of my shots more effective. By improving the muscular endurance of my arms I should in theory be able to carry on playing the same shot over and over again with consistency, allowing me to have a skilled advantage over an opponent whose level of play drops as thy get fatigued towards the end of a match.

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  21. WORK AND EMPLOYMENT

    Market value - Skill is only defined as relative to its market value. 2) SKILL IN THE JOB This approach sees skill in relation to the job itself therefore it focuses on task complexity and discretion. This approach emphasises that one can have an objective understanding of skill based on the actual tasks undertaken. Favoured approach of management theorists and IR theorists. a) Skill as complexity - It assumes that you can have an objective measure of task complexity by studying the work itself - an approach used in job evaluation.

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  22. PERSONAL EXERCISE PROGRAMME - Cricket

    Training involves long periods of steady exercise that can include jogging, swimming and cycling. The most effective of these for cricket is jogging. If you have not jogged regularly before, start with a length of time or distance that you feel you can complete and gradually build this up until you are completing a minimum of 20 minutes. You should be able to jog at a pace at which you are able to hold a short conversation without getting out of breath. The responsibility is on YOU to plan this into your week. Coaches can give advice on helping you to "start the habit".

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  23. I am going to be creating a personal exercise programme over the next six weeks. It will involve various activities e.g. circuit training. I will be doing three sessions a week, each one consisting of three circuits

    Curls Arms Shoulder Stabilisers, Arms, Wrists Shuttle Runs General Legs, Arm Core Stabilisers, Cardio Vascular MUSCLE GROUPS Shoulder Stabilisers: Rhomboids; Levator Scapulae; Serratus Autirior; Pectoralis Major. Core Stabilisers: Abdominals. Wrist Fixators: Extensor Digitorum Arm: Triceps; Biceps; Levator Scapulae; Trapezius; Deltoid; Supraspinatus; Infraspinatus; Pectoral Major/Minor; Teres Major/Minor; Subscapularus; Coraco Brachio Radalin; Supinator; Forarm Flexors/Extensors. Abdominal: Rectus Abdominus; Transversus Abdominus; Internal/External Obliques; Diaphram. Pelvic: Pelvic Floor. Leg: Hamstrings; Quadriceps; Deltoid; Gastrocnemius; Soleus. Hip: Iiiopsoas; Gluteus Maximus; Gluteus Medius; Gluteus Minimus; Gracilis; Satorium.

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  24. Long Term Adaptations to Training

    All this exercise gives you bigger muscles this is called muscle hypertrophy. 1500m swimmers capillaries become bigger, allowing more oxygen to travel through them, and new ones develop which aids in the extraction of oxygen. Increase in haemoglobin and in the number of red blood cells further aid the transport of oxygen. Though haemoglobin content rises, the increase in blood plasma is greater and consequently the blood haematocrit (ratio of red blood cell volume to total blood volume) is reduced, which lowers viscosity (thickness) and enables the blood to flow more easily.

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  25. Why are some people naturally better at sports than others?

    Because oxygen consumption and energy expenditure are related, measuring one means you are also measuring the other. Basically, the bigger a person's VO2max the better they are at sport! VO2 max can be determined by considering 3 factors: 1. Cardiac output (or the volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute) This is calculated from the heart rate (or the number of beats per minute) and the stroke volume (how much blood is pumped at each beat). 2. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood (or the number of haemoglobin in the red blood cells) 3.

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