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Fitness Testing and Training - Components of Fitness, Three Different Fitness Training Methods

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Unit 1 - Fitness Testing and Training Components of Fitness When you think about fitness, different things come to your mind, such as people who can run far, people with huge muscles and people that are slim and toned. Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of your environment. It relates to an optimal quality of life and includes social, spiritual, psychological, emotional and physical well-being and can be classified under the following areas: * Physical/health-related fitness: this focuses on your health-related aspects of fitness, with good scores in components in this area meaning you have only a small chance of developing health problems. * Skill-related fitness: this is a level of fitness that allows the individual to perform an activity, task or sport (this is also sometimes known as motor fitness). Fitness involves six main components: * Aerobic endurance * Muscular endurance * Flexibility * Strength * Speed * Power Aerobic endurance Aerobic endurance is the time which you can exercise, without producing lactic acid (and it building up) in your muscles. In other words stamina, the amount of time you can maintain an aerobic use of energy (oxygen). Also known as cardiovascular endurance. The ability of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply the exercising muscles with oxygen to maintain the exercise is very important in simple activities such as, walking and it is also important in many sporting activities. The level of aerobic endurance is reflected by the length of time an aerobic exercise involving large muscle groups (e.g. running, cycling, and swimming) can be performed. It depends on the ability of the lungs and heart to take in and transport adequate amounts of oxygen to working muscles, and on the ability of the muscles to extract and use the oxygen efficiently. Poor aerobic endurance will affect other fitness components. Muscular endurance Another physical-related aspect of fitness, muscular endurance is needed where a specific muscle or muscle group makes repeated contractions over a significant period of time (possibly over a number of minutes). ...read more.


Some athletes take these to gain an unfair advantage over opponents. However, the consequences can have both long- and short-term health implications, as well as resulting in a ban from the sport. Results Fitness Test Component Of Fitness Results Sit And Reach Test Flexibility 19 Hand Grip Dynamometer Strength 34 Stork Balance Test Balance 17 Copper Run Speed 1200 This results show that my fitness level is well below average, the sit and reach test in flexibility shows that my results are poor, the hand grip dynamometer test in strength shows that my results are poor and the stork balance test in balance shows that my results for my balance is poor. Overall my results are very weak and need to be improved considering that excellence in these aspects are a lot higher than the results I have received. Psychological factors Psychological factors are the mental factors that help or prevent sportspeople from being in the right 'frame of mind' to perform well. In sport you have to want to perform and to improve your performance. Your determination to do this is called motivation. The intensity of it is called arousal. If training leads to boredom you will lose motivation. If you are 'wound up' you are suffering from anxiety: you will feel tension in your body and this can prevent you from performing well. Feedback is information about the outcome of a performance and it can greatly affect future performances. Your personality can affect your choice of sports and performance: * Extroverts are socially outgoing. They need high arousal levels to perform. Coaches and team mates need to keep them 'excited' about performing. They prefer team games with open skills and lots of unpredictability. Open skills are used in sports where you cannot predict what will happen next, eg in an invasion game such as hockey. * Introverts are usually shy. They perform better at lower arousal levels. ...read more.


At this point a negative perspective of this demand can affect your mental state. It can create a lack of concentration and a lack confidence in yourself. If the pressure of the demand is too much for the athlete to handle. This will make the athlete feel like they cannot accomplish their goal. Eustress Eustress is a term that is sometimes used to refer to what many call good stress. Rather than being the root cause for discomfort or emotional distress, eustress motivates people to continue moving forward and enjoy actions and events that require some effort but ultimately provide a great deal of satisfaction. Distress This is the opposite of Eustress; it is the bad kind of stress and can be really bad for you. It can disrupt the quality of the sports players' performance; it can shorten your life and in worst cases it can cause a heart attack and even death. This is a very dangerous type of being nervous and anxious. Arousal The effect on sport is that your arousal levels different depending on what outcome you are willing to achieve. If your arousal level is high, then you will be more motivated to win and if you win it will increase the meaning of that win. If your arousal levels are low then it means that you are more likely to not perform as you normally can. Arousal is mental and physical. It is psychic energy-the activation of certain parts of the central nervous system that leads to physiological and behavioural changes. You can partially control arousal and thereby improve your functioning as an individual as well as an athlete. Arousal can also have negative effects. This is because arousal has multiple effects on athletic performance during sports. Arousal enhances blood flow and oxygen in the brain, neural and musculoskeletal systems. Arousal stimulates adrenaline and other stimulant hormone production. Arousal that is excessively high or low hurts athletic performance. Some effects of arousal on sports performance include muscular tension, decision-making speed, concentration and focus, rhythm and coordination. ...read more.

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