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GCSE P.E - PEP

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By James Collier

Planning

I am doing my personal exercise programme to hopefully increase the level of my muscular endurance and cardiovascular fitness. I would also like to improve my overall flexibility and agility. Also improving my arm and leg strength increase my aptitude in my football. I can see from my results from the multi stage fitness tests that I have a reasonable level of fitness which can be improved. During these tests I did suffer a slight back injury which did affect my movement and amount of sport I played whilst I had that injury.

The tests we have performed during the programme are:

  1. Multi-Stage Fitness Test
  2. Continuous Fartlek Training
  3. 12 minute Cooper run
  4. Indoor Fartlek Circuit Training
  5. 3k run
  6. In the second physical education lesson of every week we also performed our circuits.  

The multi-stage fitness test was performed during the first week of the programme. This is also known as ‘the bleep test’. During the multi-stage fitness test you are running between 2 lines in time with a bleep, the bleep gets faster and faster as the test goes on. The aim of the test is to run for as long as you can and achieve the highest possible level you can. In my first attempt at this test I reached a level of 11.4. It took me 6 minutes to recover from this exercise. My heart rate at the end of this activity was 120 beats per minute. My resting heart rate was 60 beats per minute.

Continuous Fartlek Training was the second fitness test we performed during the second week of the programme. This test consisted of running round the school on different terrain, the different terrains were concrete, tarmac, grass and up steps. We had to complete as many laps of the course as we could during a 15 minute period. I managed to complete 6 laps of the course during the 15 minute period. After this exercise it took me 5 minutes to recover back to my resting rate which was 64 beats per minute. My heart rate at the end of the activity was 122 beats per minute.  

12 minute Cooper Run was the third fitness test we completed during the third we of the programme. In this test you have to run round a square as many times as possible during a 12 minute period. The amount of laps you do, distance covered and period of time will give you an estimation of your fitness. I completed 28 laps during the 12 minute period. It took me 7 minutes to recover from this exercise; my resting heart rate was 64 beats per minute and my heart rate at the end of the activity was 140 beats per minute.

Indoor Fartlek Circuit was performed in the fourth week of the programme and therefore was the fourth test we performed. In this test the pace at which we was moving differed every 30 seconds, because for 30 seconds you walk then 30 seconds sprinting and then 30 seconds jogging and we had to continue this for a 15 minute session. After this activity my heart rate was 118 beats per minute, it took me 5 minutes to get back to my resting heart rate which was 64 beats per minute.

3 kilometre Run was performed during the fifth week of the programme and therefore was the fifth test we performed. During this we ran 3km round the running track and timed it to see how long it took us. I ran 3km in 14 minutes and 8 seconds. It took me 7 minutes to recover from this activity. My heart rate after the activity was 132 beats per minute and my resting heart rate was 62 beats per minute.

During each week I participate in 2 training sessions for football, a football match, 4-5 lessons of P.E. and 30 minutes jog every night. On Thursday I go to the gym for an hour session. My weekly exercise is usually like this:

Monday:

Tuesday: One 50 minute physical education lesson and a 30 minute jog in the evening.

Wednesday: One 50 minute physical education lesson, 30 minute jog in the evening and then a 1 hour and 30 minute football training session.

Thursday: Two 50 minute physical education lesson, 1 hour at the gym and a 30 minute jog in the evening.

Friday: One 50 minute physical education session and 30 minute jog in the evening.

Saturday: 2 hour football training session in the morning and then a 30 minute jog in the evening.

Sunday: 80 minute football match and 30 minute jog in the evening.

In these activities I train at my training zone, which is between, 80% and 90% of my maximum pulse rate: 220 - 15 = 205.

Working at this rate allows me to get the most out of each of my activities without working to hard and injuring myself. My main target of this programme is to improve my level of fitness, agility, flexibility, muscular strength and my power, all of these will help me when I play football. Improving my level of fitness will help me to perform as well as I can for longer for example during a football match. Building up my agility and flexibility levels will help me in football when tackling and challenging for a header. Improving my muscular strength particular in my legs will help when I’m running and help me to put more power into the ball. Building my muscular strength in my arms will help when challenging.  

Safety Aspects

When planning my circuit I must consider safety. Safety is of paramount importance so that I will not hurt myself or any other people. I must consider my equipment when planning my circuit. Not preparing my equipment correctly could lead to an injury. Jewellery is not aloud during any physical activity because of safety. Girls should have their hair tied back so they can see without problem. Jewellery is not aloud because it could hurt you or your opponents in a physical contact sport. Before I perform my circuit I must complete a warm up. This will prepare my body for exercise by increasing my heart rate. After warming up I must stretch out to ensure I will not injure myself when putting strain on my muscles. Whilst performing some activities during my circuit I must use a mat because if I was to fall from a height the mat would soften my landing and when doing exercises like sit ups and press ups the mat doesn’t put as much pressure on my back and wrists like a hard floor would. When performing some exercises must make sure that I perform them correctly, to ensure I get the full benefit of the exercise and do not injure myself. Before doing my circuit I make sure I am completely stretched out especially in my arms, legs, back and stomach areas. Throughout the whole of my circuit I must make sure that I don’t overwork my muscles, I must make sure that I give my muscles a rest to prevent the build up of lactic acid. This means I have to alternate between muscle groups. This means I must go from cardiovascular fitness stations to muscular strength stations and so on. Also whilst doing my circuit I must be aware of how much space is around me and if there’s is not enough I should move to prevent collisions with other circuit trainers. I allowed my body to recover after my circuit by walking a lap of the gym with hands above my head also known as brisk walking; this just lets your body regain all the oxygen it needs.  

Your warm up should include a pulse raiser usually at least a 5 minute jog, this gets your blood flow going and ready to exercise, this also warms your body and muscles up ready for exercise. Then you should spend time stretching out all your muscles especially the muscles you are going to be using mainly in this activity. Each stretch should be held for 8 seconds. Then spend at least 10 minutes warming up specifically to your sport, for example, if you’re about to play football you should spend these 10 minutes passing a ball around, practising headers and taking shots.

Stretches should be performed for about 8 seconds each and also should be held in the same position and not wobbling around off balance. Here are a few stretches that will help reduce the risk of muscle strain:

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After any strenuous exercise a performer should complete a cool down, this will decrease body temperature back to normal temperature and reduce the amount of adrenaline in your blood stream. I proper, well executed cool down will help your body get rid of all lactic acid and regain all the lost oxygen you used during exercising. For a cool down I usually do a 3-5 minute jog and then spend as much time as needed stretching out all the muscles I have just used performing my sport.

My Circuit

In my circuit I have chosen to have; Dorsal Raises, Bench Presses, Star Jumps, Sit Ups, Press Ups and Skipping.

I perform all of these activities for 30 seconds each and I go round the circuit three times a session. I have put dorsal raises into my circuit because these will help me to improve my flexibility. Bench presses are in my circuit because they will help to improve my muscular strength especially in my arm. Star jumps are there as 1 of my 2 resting stations, Sit ups are in my circuit because they help my muscular endurance and help to build my stomach muscles, I have included press ups in my circuit to help build up my muscular strength in my arms and skipping is used as my second rest station. Throughout the six weeks I performed the programme I completed all 6 of the circuit sessions with full recorded results.  

I have made my circuit relevant to me and my sport because in football I play as a defender, I think defenders need good strength, flexibility and stamina as well as excellent football skills.  In my circuit I have dorsal raises to improve my flexibility, I need flexibility in football to be able to make more affective tackles and win more headers. Bench press and press-ups are in my circuit to help build my upper body strength because I need to improve my strength for my football. Strength is an asset in football because as a defender it will help me to make a stronger challenge on the ground and for a header. Sit ups are in my circuit to help improve my stomach muscles and stamina so in a game I can play to my full potential for longer without getting tired.

Principals of Training

There are 9 principals of training, these are: Progression, Reversibility, Regularity, Overload, Specificity, Systematic Programming, Individual Needs, Moderation and FITT principal. These are often called P.R.R.O.S.S.I.M.F.

Progression: Is when you start exercising slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise you complete.

Reversibility:  Any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when a person stops training.

Regularity: Repeating exercise sessions in a week to bring about improved fitness. This was included in my circuit because we performed the same circuit every week.

Overload: Following the principle that the body can only be improved through training more and harder than normal. Every week I tried to improve on the amount of reps I did.

Specificity: Concentration on specific kinds of activity or exercise to build specific body parts. I specified on my upper body strength, I have 2 stations in my circuit on upper body strength.

Systematic Programming: planning a programme for an individual as a result of the effect of previous training.

Individual Needs: These are when a certain performer has certain requirements for training. As a footballer I needed to build my upper body strength and my stamina.

Moderation: Balancing training and not over training. We performed every station for 30 seconds.

FITT: Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type. We performed this every week, I tried to do more every week, we performed every station for the same amount of time and I made it the right type of training I needed.

Performing

The results for my circuit training, I recorded these after performing them:

   Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Time:

30 Seconds

30 Seconds

30 Seconds

30 Seconds

30 Seconds

30 Seconds

Exercise

Session 1

Session 1

Session 1

Session 1

Session 1

Session 1

Dorsal Raises

36

17

29

27

26

34

Bench Press

34

35

32

31

34

29

Star Jumps

38

35

34

28

31

39

Sit Ups

27

29

26

34

27

30

Press Ups

26

18

24

17

21

25

Skipping

43

45

43

38

44

48

Session 2

Session 2

Session 2

Session 2

Session 2

Session 2

Dorsal Raises

45

26

28

26

39

25

Bench Press

36

38

29

30

31

34

Star Jumps

42

39

36

26

34

33

Sit Ups

29

36

24

32

25

28

Press Ups

28

29

25

23

20

31

Skipping

52

52

43

38

44

50

Session 3

Session 3

Session 3

Session 3

Session 3

Session 3

Dorsal Raises

33

22

31

31

27

24

Bench Press

36

41

30

25

38

29

Star Jumps

31

30

33

29

26

34

Sit Ups

36

34

26

33

31

30

Press Ups

29

27

22

24

21

20

Skipping

44

51

45

46

41

40

Before every circuit session I complete a gentle jog for about 5 minutes as a warm up and then again after I complete another gentle jog for around 5 minutes as a cool down. After jogging before the session I also stretch to avoid myself getting injured. When participating in a circuit session I always wear a polo shirt with shorts and trainers and certainly no jewellery, it is important that I wear the right clothing when training because I feel comfortable in these clothes and they are not restrictive also it is important I don’t wear jewellery for the safety of myself and other participators as jewellery can get caught and cause myself of someone else damage.

I get my motivation from knowing that the new football season is coming up soon and I feel that I need to improve on my fitness because this will help to boost my performance level. I feel that I was working to my full potential because after every session I felt quite tired n I felt I was improving as well.

For an exercise circuit a warm up should include a pulse raiser, usually a jog, lasting about 5 minutes and then stretch out all the muscles in your body that are going to be working as this will save you from severe injuries.  For a match a warm up should consist of a pulse raiser, normally a jog, should be performed for around 5 minutes which should then be followed by a 5 minute stretching session, where you should stretch mainly the muscles that are going to be worked during your match as well as other muscles. After stretching you should perform some skill rehearsal, in this period you should be getting a feel for the game both physically and mentally.  

Monitoring

At the beginning, before every test, we took our resting heart rate so at the end of the test we could work out how long it took us to recover and what our recovery rate was. After every test we would take our heart rate straight away this was to see how hard we had worked and also so we could work out how long it took us to recover and what our recovery rate was. Every week we performed a different test except for in the last week when we repeated the multi-stage fitness test to see if our fitness had improved.

Before every session we recorded our resting heart rates, these are mine from every week:

Week

1

2

3

4

5

6

Heart Rate

60

64

64

64

62

62

(BPM)

My heart on average was 64 beats per minute.

These are the heart rates taking after the test and how long it took me to recover.

Multi-Stage Fitness Test

My heart rate, taken before the test, was 60 beats per minute. My heart rate which was taken straight after the test was 120 beats per minute. In the test I got to level 11.3. The table below shows that after the multi-stage fitness test it took me 6 minutes to get back to my resting heart rate.

Heart rate taken at 1 minute intervals post exercise in bpm

Minutes

1

2

3

4

5

6

Heart rate

120

112

106

72

64

60

Continuous Fartlek Training

My heart rate before the test was 64 beats per minute. My heart rate that was taken after the test was 126 beats per minute. I completed 15 minutes of the test. The table shows that in the continuous fartlek training test it took me 5 minutes to get back to my resting heart rate.

Heart rate taken at 1 minute intervals post exercise in bpm

Minutes

1

2

3

4

5

Heart rate

126

104

88

72

64

Cooper 12 minute Run

My heart rate before the test was again 64 beats per minute. My heart rate taken after the test was 140 beats per minute. I completed 28 laps in 12 minutes. The table shows that in the 12 minute cooper run test it took me 6 minutes to return to my resting heart rate.

Heart rate taken at 1 minute intervals post exercise in bpm

Minutes

1

2

3

4

5

6

Heart rate

140

124

112

94

78

64

Indoor Fartlek Circuit

My heart rate taken before the test was 64 beats per minute. My heart rate taken after the test was 118 beats per minute. I completed 15 minutes of the indoor fartlek circuit. The table shows that it took me 6 minutes to recover to my resting heart rate after the test.

Heart rate taken at 1 minute intervals post exercise in bpm

Minutes

1

2

3

4

5

6

Heart rate

118

107

98

86

72

65

3km Run

My heart rate taken before the run was 62 beats per minute. My heart rate taken after the 3km run was 132 beats per minute. I completed the 3 kilometre run in 14 minutes and 8 seconds. The table below shows that I took 7 minutes to return to my resting heart rate after the 3km run.

Heart rate taken at 1 minute intervals post exercise in bpm

Minutes

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Heart rate

132

120

108

98

82

76

64

Multi-Stage Fitness Test

My resting heart rate taken before the test was 62 beats per minute. My heart rate taken after the test was 144 beats per minute. In the multi-stage fitness test I reached level 13.3 which I am pleased with because at the start of the programme I only reached 11.3, so this shows a major improvement. The table below shows that it took me 7 minutes to recover after the test.

Heart rate taken at 1 minute intervals post exercise in bpm

Minutes

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Heart rate

144

136

120

108

92

78

64

Conclusion of results

 From my results I can see that I have made an improvement over the six weeks which I am happy with. This improvement in fitness will help me perform better when playing football. I can only see that I have got fitter from the multi-stage fitness test because that is the only test I repeated. I can’t really determine if I am much fitter because I am only shown in one test. If I was to repeat all the other tests I did as well it would prove to me if I have got fitter over the six weeks or not.

Evaluation of Planning

The first test we did was the multi-stage fitness test, in this I got to level 11.3 of the test. I was pleased because I hadn’t been training before that so I thought that was o.k. When we repeated this test 6 weeks later I reached level 13.3, this showed that after 6 weeks of training I have got slightly fitter. If I repeated all of the tests it would give me a more definite result of if I am fitter now or not.

In my circuit I included, two stations that worked on upper body strength, two rest stations, one station that worked flexibility and one station on stamina. Stations that were similar I separated because then after working one set of muscles, for example biceps, I can go and work another set of muscles, for example quads, and then while I’m working on my quads my biceps are resting so I can move onto another bicep station and they will be rested.

My exercises were pacifically chosen to help develop my fitness and upper body strength, because if I improve them then my football will develop due to that.

Evaluation of Performing

After the first circuit session I did not make any changes to my circuit because I felt that my circuit was working the muscle groups I needed it to. Although if I was doing this programme again I would take out one of my rest station and out stamina station instead. My P.R.R.O.S.S.I.M.F was not affected by the amount of rest stations I had.

I did not expect to work aerobically because I know from my theory lessons that when exercising a performer needs oxygen for his muscles to keep working and for blood to keep on flowing round the body. All-round I found the programme simple to do because I didn’t use that much equipment and the equipment I did use was quick and easy to setup. Recording all my results was the hardest part because when I forgot my booklet I had to record them on paper which made it difficult and also when going straight from one station to another sometimes you forget about recording your results.

The order of my circuit I thought was good because I wasn’t working one set of muscles on two stations consecutively, also I put my rest stations in after the more tiring stations because I will be more fatigued then. If I did work one set of muscles consecutively I may have caused myself an injury or maybe cramp. This would have been to the muscles getting overworked and not being able to cope.

I kept myself interested because I knew that in the end I was the person being benefited from these tests and circuits so I knew I was doing it for me. Also it was going to benefit the performance level at which I play football in a good way and that’s what motivated me.

Evaluation of Monitoring

In my six week personal exercise programme I definitely included the right activities to improve the certain areas I wanted to. I made no changes to the activities I included because I didn’t feel the need to as I could feel the certain areas I wanted to develop being improved.

I didn’t make any changes after the first week because I felt good after the first session, I had no aches or pains due to overworking certain muscles and my circuit flowed smoothly without specific stations getting to packed at one time.

After the first circuit session I felt slight aches in my arms but not too bad otherwise I would have changed the order of my circuit. But after the second session I didn’t have these aches because after the first session my arms were more used to the workout. You can’t really feel yourself getting fitter but after the second and third session I had no aches which felt better and felt like I was fitter than after the first session.

Final Evaluation

At the start of the six week training programme I performed the multi-stage fitness test and got level 11.3. At the end of the six week training programme I performed this test again to see if I had got fitter over the course of the programme. When I completed the test again I got level 13.3. This shows that I have improved two levels. This shows that I have got a little fitter. But to certify this next time I would repeat more than one test just so I can see if I improve in every test we done.

I found the programme relatively easy because setting up the circuits and the tests were quick and simple also the tests were simple so I didn’t have to think about them I just had to complete them to my highest standard I could.

Now, after this six week training programme is the start of my football season and when performing in a match the other day I felt much stronger physically and mentally because after doing that programme I know I’m slightly fitter than I was before. Also I felt I could perform at my highest standard for longer in the game and wasn’t knackered after 50 or 60 minutes.

I was motivated because I know that after all this programme was only going to benefit one person, me and the fact that I was doing it for myself made me train harder and better. I was doing this to help improve my football talent and I feel I have done that after playing a couple of games lately. Also with other performers doing these tests that makes me more motivated because they give the test competition which is motivating.

If I was to perform this personal exercise programme again I would probably take one of my rest stations out of my circuit and then put in another stamina station because that was my only negative point was that I had too many resting stations in my circuit. But apart from that I was happy with all my circuits and my tests.

By James Collier

Contents Page

Front page                                                               1

Planning                                                                   3                                                                

Performing                                                               9

Monitoring                                                               11

Evaluation of Planning                                                  14

Evaluation of Performing                                         15

Evaluation of Monitoring                                         16

Final Evaluation                                                         17

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