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Investigating the Short-Term Effects of Exercise on the Body.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATING THE SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE BODY Experiment Aim: To investigate the short-term effects of exercise on the body, by measuring and comparing the recovery rates after different intensities of exercise on the same person. Background Knowledge: When you begin your exercise your body responds to the orders of your brain to move your muscles in a more vigorous way. As soon as these movements begin, a number of rapid automatic changes also occur throughout your body. Firstly, the muscles immediately start to burn more energy to fuel their contractions. They do this by converting stored ATP chemicals (adenosine triphosphate) to the usable ADP energy (adenosine diphosphate) inside each individual muscle cell. (RESOURCE 1) During sustained, aerobic activity, like a brisk walk or steady running, your working muscles might use 15 to 25 times more energy than they do at rest, using much more oxygen that is inhaled. During an intense short anaerobic effort, such as a 100-metre sprint your muscles may require up to 120 times more energy than at rest, but this produces lactic acid as a by-product of anaerobic respiration - to be broken down by inhaled oxygen after the exercise is completed. Consequently, the heart immediately begins to beat faster in order to pump more oxygenated blood around the body to be diffused through blood capillary walls and tissue fluid into your muscles and other body tissues. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus list: The following apparatus will be required, to be used in the experiment: * Stopwatch / time measuring equipment * Heart rate monitor (optional) * Trundle wheel / measuring tape * Thermometer * Calculator Plan: Firstly, all apparatus required will be organised and arranged in the area in which the exercise will take place. Firstly, 30 metres will be marked out in a straight line, using the trundle wheel. Then, the person completing the exercises will measure and record their resting pulse rate (measured in beats per minute). Then, the person will run the 30 metres marked out as quickly as possible, and their time will be recorded. After the exercise period, the person's pulse rate will be measured for one minute, and recorded. A one-minute resting interval will be carried out, and then the pulse rate measured and recorded again. This will continue until the pulse rate returns to the resting pulse rate. The recovery rate will then be worked out. This entire exercise will be repeated by the same person, as before - for accuracy of the results. After this, a second intensity of exercise will be carried out. Firstly, an area in which an exercise of 30 step-ups can take place will be found. Next, the person's resting pulse rate (measured in beats per minute) ...read more.

Conclusion

could have had an effect on the results, as could the variables that could not be controlled - 'temperature of the surroundings'. The measurements of pulse rate, accounting for degree of error could have been 1b.p.m. The measurements of recovery rate, accounting for degree of error could have been 30 seconds (0.5 minutes). The differences in temperature during the conduction of the experiment could also have been approximately 1degree. These three factors could have affected the results, but not greatly. Therefore, I feel that the evidence gained, in conjunction with the graphed results found is sufficient to support a firm conclusion as shown. In order to improve the accuracy of the evidence further, the following changes could be made to the overall experiment: * Electronic measuring devices could have been used to measure the pulse rate changes with great accuracy before, during and after the exercises were completed. * Electronic measuring devices could also have been used to measure the recovery rate of the person with greater accuracy. * Other more effective outcome variables could have been used in place of 'recovery rate' that was used. These would have required the use of very complex systems that measure 'breathing rate' and 'depth of breathing'. * To overcome the temperature differences present with the experiment, the exercises could take place in a controlled environment, such as a sports hall where the temperature could be kept at a constant. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 ...read more.

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