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Monitoring Food and Its Effects on the Body

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´╗┐Anatomy and Physiology 2 SBI172 Laboratory Report Introduction The human body is a complex being. Its ultimate goal is to maintain life and to do so it requires macronutrients (food), oxygen, water, appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure (Marieb & Hoehn 2010). In the human body there are constant use of energy to allow the body to function appropriately. Moreover each day cells undergo constant recycling, where millions are reproduced or regenerated to replace the old or injured cells (Marieb & Hoehn 2010). In order to do so macronutrients are required for the chemical reaction to take place. Henceforth, to maintain a balanced and healthy body, a balanced diet is important according to the research conducted by the National Health and Medical Research Council (2005). There are many macronutrients that contribute to the health of a human being. These include elements includes protein, carbohydrates, fats, and minerals and vitamins (NHMRC 2005). It is known that protein is essential to the body as it provides the body material for growth and repair, whereas carbohydrates provide a rich source of energy. Fats also provide a source of energy but it also contains fat-soluble vitamins, where it provides transportation for fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K around the body. Furthermore it also protects the internal organs by cushioning. Minerals are required for the blood, bone and all cells, whereas vitamins assist enzyme activity and absorption. These macronutrients becomes involved in several biochemical reactions known as metabolism. This reaction allows the macronutrients to get built up and town down, which then the cells of the body extract the energy from the macronutrients (Marieb & Hoehn 2010). The basal metabolism is the minimum amount of energy that the body requires at rest to maintain its daily functions (NHMRC 2005). The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of calories spent on basal metabolism. Such activities that the basal metabolism contributes to are those that happens involuntarily or unconsciously such as breathing air and the beating of the heart (NHMRC 2005). ...read more.


24% of total Fats ? 9 x 39.6 = 356.4 calories/day = 36% of total Alcohol ? 7 x 0 = 0 calories/ day = 0% of total Total Calories = 986.8 calories/day Calories from the Nutrition Component from Days 8-14 Protein = 4112 calories =47% of total Carbohydrates = 2152 calories = 25% of total Fats = 2493 calories = 28% of total Alcohol = 0 calories Total Calories = 8758 calories Figure 1.2 It can be seen that 8758 calories is the total calorie intake for the week. Protein takes up nearly half of the total calorie intake at 47%, where carbohydrates and fats contribute towards the other half at 25% and 28% respectively. As there were no consumption of alcohol, it did not add any calories to the total calories intake, hence contributed to 0% of the total weekly calorie. Calculating Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Week 1 Personal Characteristics Sex = Male Weight = 81kg Height = 175cm Age = 18 BMR (Men) = 66 + (13.7 x 79) + (5 x 175) - (6.8 x 18) = 1928 calories/day = 13496 calories/week Week 2 Personal Characteristics Sex = Male Weight = 79kg Height = 175cm Age = 18 BMR (Men) = 66 + (13.7 x 79) + (5 x 175) - (6.8 x 18) = 1901 calories/day =13307 calories/week The basal metabolic rate for week 1 is 13496 calories per week, whereas it is 13307 calories per week for week 2. There is slight change in the BMR value with a 189 calories difference. Calculating Active Metabolic Rate (AMR) Week 1 Activity Level: Moderate (Moderate exercise/sports 3-5 days/week), conversion factor ? 1.55 AMR = BMR x Conversion Factor AMR = 1928 x 1.55 = 2988 calories/day = 20916 calories/week Week 2 Activity Level: Heavy (Hard exercise/sports 6-7 days/week), conversion factor ? 1.725 AMR = BMR x Conversion Factor AMR = 1901 x 1.725 = 3279 calories/day = 22953 calories/week The active metabolic rate in week 1 is 20916 calories per week and 22953 calories per week in week 2. ...read more.


Conclusion Overall the aim of the investigation was supported through the findings in the result by following the experimental method. Though there were some limitations, such as not being able to accurately monitor the exercises and only being able to observe the amount of nutrition taken over a 2 week period, it was found that the hypothesis, ?As the level of physical activity increases, the active metabolic rate also increases? was supported by the results. Where it shows that the value for AMR in week 1 is much lower than the value for AMR in week 2 due to the increased in physical activity level. Lastly, from previous research on the recommended macronutrients intake, it was also found that the nutrition consumed over the two weeks period such as protein was higher than the recommended daily intake, whereas the carbohydrates consumed did not meet the intake, but the amount of fats consumed was within the recommended range. Reference Cook, N 2002, Starvation; Medical Department Have Provided New Data on Starvation, The MIT Press, Massachusetts, USA Hanson, S 2003, ?Your BMR and what you can do about it?, Vibrant Life, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 16, viewed 21 August 2013, via Academic OneFile Jequier, E 2004 ?Response to and range of acceptable fat intake in adults?, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 84-94, viewed 21 August 2013, via Academic Search Premier Layman, D 2009, ?Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs?, Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 6-12, viewed 21 August 2013, <http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/6/1/12> Marieb, E & Hoehn, K 2010, Human Anatomy & Physiology, Pearson Education, San Francisco, CA. McCarter, D 2003, ?Low carbohydrate diet effective for adults?, Journal of Family Practice, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 515, viewed 21 August 2013, via OneFile Melbourne Bariatrics 2011, ?Problems With Obesity?,? Causes of Obesity, vol. 1, no.3, pp. 1-1, viewed 21 August 2013, <http://www.melbournebariatrics.com.au/causes-of-obesity.html> NHMRC 2005, ?Nutrient Reference Values For Australia and New Zealand?, Recommended Dietary Intakes, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-317, viewed 21 August 2013, <http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n35.pdf> ...read more.

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