• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Performance enhancing drugs

Extracts from this document...


A lot has been written and said about drugs in sport. With each passing year, there are more and more athletes being caught taking banned chemicals/drugs that enhance sport performance. In the recent Tour de France, almost half of the urine samples indicated traces of banned substances. An underlying inference is that anyone who tests positive for drugs is a cheat. Rightfully, so. It is almost totally accepted in high level sport that athletes take drugs, often termed "nutritional supplements," with the intention to chemically enhance performance with "legal" substances. Whether the ingested or injected substances are banned or legal is not the point. The major feature of today's sport is that attempts to chemically enhance performance are virtually universal. Behaviorally, there is no difference between athletes who ingest/inject banned substances and those who ingest/inject non-banned substances. Both seek chemical enhancement of performances. Over the past decade, there has been a clamor to strip the chemically enhanced East German women of their medals, earned when they were using state-sanctioned steroids. ...read more.


This is a process in which users slowly escalate steroid use (increasing the number of drugs used at one time and/or the dose and frequency of one or more steroids) reaching a peak amount at mid-cycle and gradually tapering the dose toward the end of the cycle.5 Extent of Use Results from the 2004 Monitoring the Future Study, which surveys students in eighth, tenth, and twelfth grades, show that 1.9% of eighth graders, 2.4% of tenth graders, and 3.4% of twelfth graders reported using steroids at least once in their lifetimes.6 Percent of Students Reporting Steroid Use, 2004 Student Steroid Use Eighth Grade Tenth Grade Twelfth Grade Past month use 0.5% 0.8% 1.6% Past year use 1.1 1.5 2.5 Lifetime use 1.9 2.4 3.4 Regarding the ease by which one can obtain steroids, 19.7% of eighth graders, 29.6% of tenth graders, and 42.6% of twelfth graders surveyed in 2004 reported that steroids were "fairly easy" or "very easy" to obtain. During 2004 55.7% of twelfth graders surveyed reported that using steroids was a "great risk."7 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ...read more.


after being smuggled into this country.15 The most common source for obtaining steroids for illegal use is smuggling them into the U.S. from other countries such as Mexico and European countries. These countries do not require a prescription for the purchase of steroids, making it easier to smuggle them.16 In addition to this, steroids are also illegally diverted from U.S. pharmacies or synthesized in clandestine laboratories.17 Legislation Concerns over a growing illicit market and prevalence of abuse combined with the possibility of harmful long-term effects of steroid use led Congress to place anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) in 1991.18 It is therefore illegal to possess or sell anabolic steroids without a valid prescription. Some States have also implemented additional fines and penalties for illegal use of anabolic steroids.19 The International Olympic Committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association and many professional sports leagues (including the Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Football League, and National Hockey League), have banned the use of steroids by athletes due to their potentially dangerous side effects and because they give the user an unfair advantage.20 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Safety Aspects and Risk Assessment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Safety Aspects and Risk Assessment essays

  1. GCSE PE Analysing Performance Task

    to teach Emily to stay on the balls of her feet so that she can move quicker. 2. This is a defending practise in groups of three. One player holds the ball and the second player has to defend the third player.

  2. Rules, regulations and legislation are really important as they provide a safe environment for ...

    Deaths If an employee, a self employed person or a member of the public is killed in a work place, the enforcing authority must be notified without delay by either ringing the Incident Contact Centre or filling in a form online.

  1. This assignment will cover the main and most occurring sporting injuries, the signs and ...

    -Then swelling, stiffness and sometimes cramp. -a casualty with a torn Achilles tendon collapses and cant get up again. Treatment -For minor strains follow the RICE routine. -For a serious strain bring the casualty to hospital. Other types of muscle damage - Tear - Contusion - Muscle soreness C)

  2. PPP - Basketball

    It also increases the rate of muscular contraction and recovery. A proper warm up will increase body temperature which will rapidly increase the transportation of the enzymes needed for energy systems and muscle contraction. Also, a decrease in OBLA (onset of blood lactic acid)

  1. Most injuries in hockey are mainly down to being struck by a hockey stick ...

    Injuries to the adductors are muscles that run from the inside thigh. These are active while running, twisting and side stepping activities. An injury can occur at any time during these activities or a fall. Pain may begin and aching on the inner thigh.

  2. Fitness tests

    score for that person As the 'sit and reach' table has an overhang of 15cm, a person who reaches 10cm past their toes scores 25cm It is important to have several warm-up attempts first, and to record the best score Trunk Lift --> Lie face down on the floor and clasp your hands behind your neck.

  1. I have chosen to do my study on a comparison of hockey passing (hit ...

    study 16th May Yes Session arranging 16th May Yes Creation of sessions 23rd May Yes Create test 23rd May Yes Perform sessions and tests 7th July No (finished by the 18th July) Analysis 4th September Yes Evaluation 22nd September Yes I will break down my skills into to sections and

  2. Health and safety - working with computers

    Make sure that everything you need is within this area, including books, documents, tools, a telephone, etc. Be sure that the desk has a surface large enough to support all of your materials, even the ones that you are not currently using.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work